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NBC Lightning ArresterIEC 62561-2Edition 1.0 2012-02INTERNATIONALSTANDARDLightning protection system components (LPSC) –Part 2: Requirements for conductors and earth electrodesIEC 62561-2:2012(E)®www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTEDCopyright © 2012 IEC, Geneva, SwitzerlandAll rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any formor by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing fromeither IEC or IEC's member National Committee in the country of the requester.If you have any questions about IEC copyright or have an enquiry about obtaining additional rights to this publication, please contact the address below or your local IEC member National Committee for further information.IEC Central Office Tel.: +41 22 919 02 113, rue de Varembé Fax: +41 22 919 03 00CH-1211 Geneva 20 info@iec.chSwitzerland www.iec.chAbout the IECThe International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading global organization that prepares and publishesInternational Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies.About IEC publicationsThe technical content of IEC publications is kept under constant review by the IEC. Please make sure that you have thelatest edition, a corrigenda or an amendment might have been published.Useful links:IEC publications search - www.iec.ch/searchpubThe advanced search enables you to find IEC publicationsby a variety of criteria (reference number, text, technicalcommittee, …).It also gives information on projects, replaced andwithdrawn publications.IEC Just Published - webstore.iec.ch/justpublishedStay up to date on all new IEC publications. Just Publisheddetails all new publications released. Available on-line andalso once a month by email.Electropedia - www.electropedia.orgThe world's leading online dictionary of electronic andelectrical terms containing more than 30 000 terms anddefinitions in English and French, with equivalent terms inadditional languages. Also known as the InternationalElectrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) on-line.Customer Service Centre - webstore.iec.ch/cscIf you wish to give us your feedback on this publicationor need further assistance, please contact theCustomer Service Centre: csc@iec.ch.www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---IEC 62561-2Edition 1.0 2012-02INTERNATIONALSTANDARDLightning protection system components (LPSC) –Part 2: Requirements for conductors and earth electrodesINTERNATIONALELECTROTECHNICALCOMMISSION VICS 29.020; 91.120.40PRICE CODEISBN 978-2-88912-924-9® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission®Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---– 2 – 62561-2 © IEC:2012(E)CONTENTSFOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 61 Scope ............................................................................................................................... 72 Normative references ....................................................................................................... 73 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................... 84 Requirements ................................................................................................................... 94.1 General ................................................................................................................... 94.2 Documentation ........................................................................................................ 94.3 Air termination conductors, air termination rods, earth lead-in rods and downconductors .............................................................................................................. 94.4 Earth electrodes .................................................................................................... 114.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 114.4.2 Earth rods ................................................................................................. 114.4.3 Joints for earth rods................................................................................... 114.4.4 Earth conductors and plates ...................................................................... 124.5 Marking ................................................................................................................. 125 Tests .............................................................................................................................. 155.1 General conditions for tests ................................................................................... 155.2 Conductors, air termination rods and earth lead-in rods ......................................... 155.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 155.2.2 Tests for thickness coating on conductors ................................................. 155.2.3 Bend and adhesion test for coated conductors .......................................... 155.2.4 Environmental test ..................................................................................... 165.2.5 Tensile tests .............................................................................................. 165.2.6 Electrical resistivity test ............................................................................. 165.3 Earth rods ............................................................................................................. 175.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 175.3.2 Tests for thickness coating on earth rods ................................................... 175.3.3 Adhesion test ............................................................................................ 185.3.4 Bend test ................................................................................................... 185.3.5 Environmental test ..................................................................................... 195.3.6 Tensile strength tests ................................................................................ 195.3.7 Test for yield/tensile ratio .......................................................................... 195.3.8 Electrical resistivity test ............................................................................. 205.4 Joints for earth rods .............................................................................................. 215.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 215.4.2 Compression tests by mechanical means .................................................. 215.4.3 Environmental – Electrical tests ................................................................. 225.5 Marking test .......................................................................................................... 235.5.1 General conditions for tests ....................................................................... 235.5.2 Acceptance criteria .................................................................................... 236 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) .............................................................................. 237 Structure and content of the test report .......................................................................... 237.1 General ................................................................................................................. 237.2 Report identification .............................................................................................. 247.3 Specimen description ............................................................................................ 24www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---62561-2 © IEC:2012(E) – 3 –7.4 Conductor ............................................................................................................. 247.5 Standards and references ..................................................................................... 247.6 Test procedure ...................................................................................................... 247.7 Testing equipment, description .............................................................................. 247.8 Measuring instruments description ........................................................................ 247.9 Results and parameters recorded .......................................................................... 257.10 Statement of pass/fail ............................................................................................ 25Annex A (normative) Environmental test for conductors, air termination rods and earthlead-in rods........................................................................................................................... 26Annex B (normative) Requirements for the cross sectional area, mechanical andelectrical characteristics, tests to be applied ......................................................................... 27Annex C (normative) Requirements for dimensions, mechanical and electricalcharacteristics, tests to be applied ........................................................................................ 28Annex D (informative) Typical example calculation of conductor resistivity ........................... 29Annex E (informative) Typical example of calculation of the tensile strength of acoated material ..................................................................................................................... 30Annex F (normative) Flow chart of tests for air termination conductors, air terminationrods, earth lead-in rods and down conductors ....................................................................... 31Annex G (normative) Flow chart of tests for earth rods ........................................................ 32Annex H (normative) Flow chart of tests of joints for earth rods ........................................... 33Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 34Figure 1 – Coating measurements around the circumference of the rod ................................ 17Figure 2 – Typical test arrangement for adhesion test ........................................................... 18Figure 3 – Definitions of upper yield strength ReH (Mpa) and tensile strength Rm (Mpa) ....... 20Figure 4 – Typical test arrangement for the compression test by mechanical means ............. 22Table 1 – Material, configuration and cross sectional area of air terminationconductors, air termination rods, earth lead-in rods and down conductors ............................. 10Table 2 – Mechanical and electrical characteristics of air termination conductors, airtermination rods, earth lead-in rods and down conductors ..................................................... 11Table 3 – Material, configuration and cross sectional area of earth electrodes ...................... 13Table 4 – Mechanical and electrical characteristics of earth electrodes ................................. 14Table B.1 – Summary of requirements for various elements tested according to Table 1and Table 2 .......................................................................................................................... 27Table C.1 – Summary of requirements for various elements tested according to Table 3and Table 4 .......................................................................................................................... 28www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---– 4 – 62561-2 © IEC:2012(E)INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION____________LIGHTNING PROTECTION SYSTEM COMPONENTS (LPSC) –Part 2: Requirements for conductors and earth electrodesFOREWORD1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprisingall national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promoteinternational co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. Tothis end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IECPublication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interestedin the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and nongovernmentalorganizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closelywith the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined byagreement between the two organizations.2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an internationalconsensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from allinterested IEC National Committees.3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC NationalCommittees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IECPublications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for anymisinterpretation by any end user.4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publicationstransparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergencebetween any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated inthe latter.5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformityassessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for anyservices carried out by independent certification bodies.6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts andmembers of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage orother damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) andexpenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IECPublications.8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications isindispensable for the correct application of this publication.9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject ofpatent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.International Standard IEC 62561-2 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 81:Lightning protection.The text of this standard is based on the following documents:FDIS Report on voting81/417/FDIS 81/423/RVDFull information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report onvoting indicated in the above table.This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.The content of this document is taken from the European Standard EN 50164-2.www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---62561-2 © IEC:2012(E) – 5 –A list of all the parts in the IEC 62561 series, published under the general title Lightningprotection system components (LPSC), can be found on the IEC website.The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged untilthe stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the datarelated to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be• reconfirmed, • withdrawn, • replaced by a revised edition, or• amended.A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---– 6 – 62561-2 © IEC:2012(E)INTRODUCTIONThis part of IEC 62561 deals with the requirements and tests for lightning protection systemcomponents (LPSC) used for the installation of a lightning protection system (LPS) designedand implemented according to the IEC 62305 series of standards.www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---62561-2 © IEC:2012(E) – 7 –LIGHTNING PROTECTION SYSTEM COMPONENTS (LPSC) –Part 2: Requirements for conductors and earth electrodes1 ScopeThis part of IEC 62561 specifies the requirements and tests for:– metallic conductors (other than “natural” conductors) that form part of the air terminationsystem and down conductors;– metallic earth electrodes that form part of the earth termination system.2 Normative referencesThe following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document andare indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. Forundated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including anyamendments) applies.IEC 60068-2-52:1996, Environmental testing – Part 2-52: Tests – Test Kb: Salt mist, cyclic(sodium chloride solution)IEC 60228, Conductors of insulated cablesIEC 62305-3, Protection against lightning – Part 3: Physical damage to structures and lifehazardIEC 62305-4, Protection against lightning – Part 4: Electrical and electronic systems withinstructuresIEC 62561-1, Lightning protection system components (LPSC) – Part 1: Requirements forconnection componentsISO 1460, Metallic coatings – Hot dip galvanized coatings on ferrous materials – Gravimetricdetermination of the mass per unit areaISO 1461, Hot dip galvanized coatings on fabricated iron and steel articles – Specificationsand test methodsISO 2178, Non-magnetic coatings on magnetic substrates – Measurement of coatingthickness – Magnetic methodISO 6892-1:2009, Metallic materials – Tensile testing – Part 1: Method of test at roomtemperatureISO 6957:1988, Copper alloys – Ammonia test for stress corrosion resistanceISO 6988:1985, Metallic and other non-organic coatings – Sulphur dioxide test with generalcondensation of moisturewww.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---– 8 – 62561-2 © IEC:2012(E)3 Terms and definitionsFor the purpose of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.3.1air termination systempart of an external LPS using metallic elements such as rods, mesh conductors or catenarywires intended to intercept lightning flashes3.2air termination rodair termination conductorpart of the air termination system for intercepting and conducting direct lightning flashes tothe structure3.3down conductorpart of an external lightning protection system which is intended to conduct lightning currentfrom the air termination system to the earth termination system3.4earth termination systempart of an external lightning protection system which is intended to conduct and disperselightning current to the earth3.5earth electrodepart or group of parts of the earth termination system which provides direct electrical contactwith and disperses the lightning current to the earthNote 1 to entry Typical examples are earth rod, earth conductor and earth plate.3.6earth rodan earth electrode consisting of a metal rod driven into the ground[IEC 60050-604:1987, 604-04-09]3.7earth conductorearth electrode consisting of a conductor buried in the ground3.8earth platean earth electrode consisting of a metal plate buried in the ground[IEC 60050-604:1987, 604-04-10]3.9joint for earth rodpart of the earth termination system that facilitates the coupling of one section of an earth rodto another for the purpose of deep driving3.10driving headtool used in those applications where it is necessary to drive the earth rodwww.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---62561-2 © IEC:2012(E) – 9 –3.11earth lead-in rodrod installed between the down conductor/test joint and the earth electrodeNote 1 to entry Earth lead-in rods are used to improve mechanical stability.4 Requirements4.1 GeneralConductors and earth electrodes shall be so designed and constructed that in normal usetheir performance is reliable and without danger to persons and surrounding equipment.The choice of a material depends on its ability to match the particular applicationrequirements.A summary of the requirements and their corresponding tests are given in Annex F, Annex Gand Annex H.4.2 DocumentationThe manufacturer or supplier of the conductors and earth electrodes shall provide adequateinformation in their literature to ensure that the installer of the conductors and earthelectrodes can select and install the materials in a suitable and safe manner, in accordancewith IEC 62305-3 and IEC 62305-4.Compliance is checked by inspection.4.3 Air termination conductors, air termination rods, earth lead-in rods and downconductorsThe material, configuration and cross sectional area of the conductors and rods shall be inaccordance with Table 1. Their mechanical and electrical characteristics shall be inaccordance with Table 2.Other materials may be used if they possess equivalent mechanical and electricalcharacteristics and corrosion resistance properties for the intended application.Other configurations may be used if the relevant dimensions are met.Coated conductors and rods shall be corrosion resistant and the coating shall exhibit goodadherence to the base material.Compliance is checked by the tests described in 5.2.2, 5.2.3 and 5.2.4.NOTE A summary of the requirements for the cross sectional area, mechanical and electrical characteristics aswell as tests is given in Annex B.www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---– 10 – 62561-2 © IEC:2012(E)Table 1 – Material, configuration and cross sectional area of air termination conductors, air termination rods, earth lead-in rods and down conductorsMaterial Configuration Cross sectional area amm2 Recommended dimensionsCopper, Tin plated copper bSolid tape ³ 50 2 mm thicknessSolid round d ³ 50 8 mm diameterStranded d, g ³ 50 1, 7 mm diameter of each strand fSolid round ³ 176 15 mm diameterAluminium Solid tape ³ 70 3 mm thicknessSolid round ³ 50 8 mm diameterStranded g ³ 50 1, 63 mm diameter of each strandCopper coatedaluminium alloy e Solid round ³ 50 8 mm diameterAluminium alloy Solid tape ³ 50 2, 5 mm thicknessSolid round ³ 50 8 mm diameterStranded g ³ 50 1, 7 mm diameter of each strandSolid round ³ 176 15 mm diameterHot dipped galvanizedsteelSolid tape ³ 50 2, 5 mm thicknessSolid round ³ 50 8 mm diameterStranded g ³ 50 1, 7 mm diameter of each strandSolid round ³ 176 15 mm diameterCopper coated steel e Solid round ³ 50 8 mm diameterSolid tape ³ 50 2, 5 mm thicknessStainless steel c Solid tape ³ 50 2 mm thicknessSolid round ³ 50 8 mm diameterStranded g ³ 70 1, 7 mm diameter of each strandSolid round ³ 176 15 mm diameterNOTE For the application of the conductors, see IEC 62305-3.a Manufacturing tolerance: –3 %.b Hot dipped or electroplated; minimum thickness coating of 1 mm. Tin plating is for aesthetic reasons only.c Chromium ³ 16 %; nickel ³ 8 %; carbon £ 0, 08 %.d 50 mm2 (8 mm diameter) may be reduced to 25 mm2 (6 mm diameter) in certain applications where mechanicalstrength is not an essential requirement.e Minimum 70 mm radial copper coating of 99, 9 % copper content.f In some countries 1, 14 mm diameter of each strand may be used.g The cross sectional area of stranded conductors is determined by the resistance of the conductor according toIEC 60228.www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---62561-2 © IEC:2012(E) – 11 –Table 2 – Mechanical and electrical characteristics of air termination conductors, airtermination rods, earth lead-in rods and down conductorsMaterialMaximum electricalresistivitymWmTensile strengthN/mm2Copper 0, 019 200 to 450Aluminium 0, 03 £ 150Aluminium alloy 0, 036 120 to 280Steel 0, 15 290 to 510Stainless steel 0, 80 400 to 7704.4 Earth electrodes4.4.1 GeneralThe cross sectional area of earth electrodes, its material and its configuration shall be inaccordance with Table 3. Its mechanical and electrical characteristics shall be in accordancewith Table 4.Other materials may be used if they possess equivalent mechanical and electricalcharacteristics and corrosion resistance properties for the intended application.Other configurations may be used if the relevant dimensions are met.NOTE A summary of the requirements for dimensions, mechanical and electrical characteristics as well as tests isgiven in Annex C.4.4.2 Earth rodsEarth rods shall be mechanically robust to ensure correct installation. The choice of materialshall be sufficiently malleable to ensure no cracking of the rod takes place during installation.The threads on the rods, if any, shall be smooth and fully formed. For coated rods, the coatingshall extend over the threads. A lead-in chamfer or point is recommended to facilitate driving.For electroplated rods such as copper coated rods, it is desirable to thread roll the threadprofile to ensure no copper is removed from the steel.Compliance is checked by inspection and by the test according to 5.3.4.4.3 Joints for earth rodsEarth rods can be extended to drive deeper into the ground. This can be achieved by meansof a joint/coupling device.The choice of material shall be compatible with that of the earth rod being joined.It shall be mechanically robust, sufficient to withstand the driving forces generated duringinstallation.It shall also exhibit good corrosion resistance.www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---– 12 – 62561-2 © IEC:2012(E)Threaded external joints/couplers shall be of a sufficient length to ensure no threads on theearth rod are exposed when installed.Threaded internal joints/couplers shall ensure that the mating faces of the earth rods come incontact after assembly.Compliance is checked by the test of 5.4.2 and 5.4.3.4.4.4 Earth conductors and platesEarth electrode conductors and plates shall be corrosion resistant and any coating shallexhibit good adherence to the base material.Compliance is checked by the test of 5.2.2, 5.2.3 and 5.2.4.4.5 MarkingAll products complying with this standard shall be marked at least with the following:a) manufacturer's or responsible vendor's name or trade mark;b) identifying symbol.Where this proves to be impractical, the marking in accordance with the identifying symbolmay be given on the smallest packing unit.NOTE Marking can be applied for example by moulding, pressing, engraving, printing adhesive labels or waterslide transfers.Compliance is checked in accordance with 5.5.www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---62561-2 © IEC:2012(E) – 13 –Table 3 – Material, configuration and cross sectional area of earth electrodesMaterial ConfigurationCross sectional area aEarth Recommended dimensionsrodmm2Earthconductormm2Earthplatecm2Copper, tin platedcopper fStranded ³ 50 i 1, 7 mm diameter of each strandSolid round ³ 50 8 mm diameterSolid tape ³ 50 2 mm thickSolid round ³ 176 15 mm diameterPipe ³ 110 20 mm diameter with 2 mm wall thicknessSolid plate ³ 2 500 500 mm ´ 500 mm with 1, 5 mm thickness gLattice plate g ³ 3 600600 mm ´ 600 mm consisted of25 mm ´ 2 mm section for tape or 8 mmdiameter for round conductorHot dippedgalvanizedsteelSolid round ³ 78 10 mm diameterSolid round ³ 150 b 14 mm diameterPipe ³ 140 b 25 mm diameter with 2 mm wall thicknessSolid tape ³ 90 3 mm thickSolid plate ³ 2 500 500 mm ´ 500 mm with 3 mm thicknessLattice plate d ³ 3 600600 mm ´ 600 mm consisted of30 mm ´ 3 mm section for tape or 10 mmdiameter for round conductorProfile e 3 mm thickBare steelStranded ³ 70 1, 7 mm diameter of each strandSolid round ³ 78 10 mm diameterSolid tape ³ 75 3 mm thickCopper coatedsteel cSolid round ³ 150 h 14 mm diameter, if 250 mm minimum radialcopper coating, with 99, 9 % copper contentSolid round ³ 50 8 mm diameter, if 250 mm minimum radialcopper coating, with 99, 9 % copper contentSolid round ³ 78 10 mm diameter, if 70 mm minimum radialcopper coating, with 99, 9 % copper contentSolid tape ³ 90 3 mm thickness, if 70 mm minimum radialcopper coating, with 99, 9 % copper contentStainless steelSolid round ³ 78 10 mm diameterSolid round ³ 176 h 15 mm diameterSolid tape ³ 100 2 mm thickNOTE For the application of the conductors, see IEC 62305-3.www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---– 14 – 62561-2 © IEC:2012(E)a Manufacturing tolerance: –3 %.b Threads, where utilized, shall be machined prior to galvanizing.c The copper shall be intrinsically bonded to the steel. The coating can be measured using an electronic coatingmeasuring thickness instrument.d Lattice plate constructed with a minimum total conductor length of 4, 8 m.e Different profiles are permitted with a cross sectional area of 290 mm2 and a minimum thickness of 3 mm, e.g. crossprofile.f Hot dipped or electroplated; minimum thickness coating of 1 mm. Tin plating is for aesthetic reasons only.g In some countries, the cross sectional area may be reduced to ³ 1 800 cm2 and the thickness to ³ 0, 8 mm.h In some countries, the cross sectional area may be reduced to 125 mm2.i The cross sectional area of stranded conductors is determined by the resistance of the conductor according toIEC 60228.Table 4 – Mechanical and electrical characteristics of earth electrodesMaterial ConfigurationTensile strengthN/mm2MaximumelectricalresistivityEarth rod Earth conductor Earth plate mWmCopperStranded N/A 200 to 450 N/A0, 019Solid round 200 to 450 200 to 450 N/ASolid tape N/A 200 to 450 N/APipe 200 to 450 N/A N/ASolid plate N/A N/A 200 to 450Lattice plate N/A N/A 200 to 450SteelGalvanized solidround 350 to 770 290 to 510 N/A0, 25Galvanized pipe 350 to 770 N/A N/AGalvanized solidtape N/A 290 to 510 N/AGalvanized solidplate N/A N/A 290 to 510Galvanizedlattice plate N/A N/A 290 to 510Bare solid round N/A 290 to 510 N/ABare orgalvanized solidtapeN/A 290 to 510 N/AGalvanizedstranded N/A 290 to 510 N/AGalvanized crossprofile 300 to 770 N/A N/ACopper coatedsolid round 600 to 770 a, c 290 to 510 c N/AStainlesssteelSolid round b 500 to 770 400 to 730 N/A0, 80Solid tape b N/A 400 to 730 N/Aa Yield/tensile ratio 0, 80 to 0, 95.b Chromium ³ 16 %, nickel ³ 5 %, molybdenum ³ 2 %, carbon £ 0, 08 %.c Calculated on full diameter (copper coating included). See Annex E.N/A = not applicablewww.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---62561-2 © IEC:2012(E) – 15 –5 Tests5.1 General conditions for testsTests according to this standard are type tests.· Unless otherwise specified all tests are carried out on new specimens.· Unless otherwise specified, three specimens are subjected to the tests and therequirements are satisfied if all the tests are met.· If only one of the specimens does not satisfy a test due to an assembly or a manufacturingfault, that test and any preceding one which may have influenced the results of the testshall be repeated. The tests which follow shall also be carried out in the requiredsequence on another full set of specimens, all of which shall comply with therequirements.The applicant, when submitting a set of specimens, may also submit an additional set ofspecimens which may be necessary should one specimen fail. The testing station will then, without further request, test the additional set of specimens and will reject only if a furtherfailure occurs. If the additional set of specimens is not submitted at the same time, the failureof one specimen will entail rejection.5.2 Conductors, air termination rods and earth lead-in rods5.2.1 GeneralAir termination conductors, air termination rods, earth lead-in rods, down conductors andearth conductors shall be subjected to the following tests to confirm their suitability for theintended application.5.2.2 Tests for thickness coating on conductors5.2.2.1 General conditions for testsSpecimens each approximately 200 mm long shall be subjected to a test for galvanized andcopper coated coating thickness.The zinc and copper coating on a steel conductor shall be measured in accordance withISO 1460. It can also be measured in accordance with ISO 1461 or ISO 2178.There is no requirement to measure the tin plated copper due to the very small coatingthickness. Only a visual inspection is required.5.2.2.2 Acceptance criteriaThe specimens are deemed to have passed the tests if they comply with the requirements ofTable 1 for air termination conductors, air termination rods, earth lead-in rods, downconductors and Table 3 for earth electrodes. Additionally, the zinc galvanizing coating shallbe smooth, continuous and free from flux stains with a minimum weight of 350 g/m2 for solidround material and 500 g/m2 for solid tape material.5.2.3 Bend and adhesion test for coated conductors5.2.3.1 General conditions for testsCoated conductors each approximately 500 mm long shall be bent to an angle of 90 ° (0+5 ):· for round conductors, the bending radius shall be equal to 5 times (±1 mm) its diameter;· for tape conductors, the bending radius shall be equal to 5 times (±1 mm) its thickness.www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---– 16 – 62561-2 © IEC:2012(E)5.2.3.2 Acceptance criteriaAfter the test, the specimens shall show no sharp edges, cracks or peeling when inspectedwith normal or corrected vision without magnification.5.2.4 Environmental test5.2.4.1 General conditions for testsThe specimens used in and complying with 5.2.3, air termination rods, earth lead-in rods, down conductors and earth conductors, shall be subjected to an environmental test asspecified in A.1, followed by a humid sulphurous atmosphere test as specified in A.2.5.2.4.2 Acceptance criteriaAfter the tests, the base metal of the specimens shall not exhibit any visual corrosivedeterioration when inspected with normal or corrected vision without magnification.5.2.5 Tensile tests5.2.5.1 General conditions for testsFor the methodology of carrying out tensile strength (Rm), see ISO 6892-1. For the testing ofair termination rods and earth lead-in rods, the test specimens should be tested un-machinedas per D.1 of ISO 6892-1:2009.5.2.5.2 Acceptance criteriaThe specimens are deemed to have passed the tests if they comply with the requirements ofTable 2 and Table 4 for the earth conductors.5.2.6 Electrical resistivity test5.2.6.1 General conditions for testsA sample length of conductor, approximately 1, 2 m long should be used for the test. Theresistance measurement should be taken over a 1 m (± 1 mm) distance, using amicro-ohmmeter, and the reading corrected to 20 °C using appropriate correction factors.The sample shall be weighed.The resistivity of the sample length of conductor can then be found by the formula:ResistivityR aρ×= (Wm)whereR is the resistance in W over 1 m length;a is the cross sectional area (m2);ℓ is the unit length (m).See Annex D for a typical example calculation.The dimensions of the conductor should be measured at three equally distributed points along1 m length and its cross sectional area should be within a (± 5 %) tolerance.www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---62561-2 © IEC:2012(E) – 17 –5.2.6.2 Acceptance criteriaThe specimens are deemed to have passed the tests if they comply with the requirements ofTable 2 and Table 4.5.3 Earth rods5.3.1 GeneralCopper coated steel earth rods shall be subjected to the tests according to 5.3. Other earthrods shall be subjected to the test according to 5.3, except the test of 5.3.3 and 5.3.4.5.3.2 Tests for thickness coating on earth rods5.3.2.1 General conditions for testsSpecimens each approximately 500 mm long shall be subjected to a test for copper orgalvanized coating thickness.The copper or the zinc coating on a steel cored earth rod should be measured using amagnetic method instrument complying with ISO 2178.NOTE Zinc coating can also be measured in accordance with ISO 1460 or ISO 1461.Measurements should be taken at three positions along the length of the rod: onemeasurement at 50 mm in from the top of the rod, one at 50 mm in from the bottom of the rodand one at the mid-point of the rod.At each position detailed above, two additional measurements should be taken around thecircumference of the rod, separated approximately by 120° (see Key of Figure 1).Key1, 2, 3 measurementsFigure 1 – Coating measurements around the circumference of the rod5.3.2.2 Acceptance criteriaThe specimens are deemed to have passed the tests if they comply with the requirements ofTable 3.Additionally, for the zinc coated earth rods, the coating shall be smooth, continuous and freefrom flux stains with a minimum weight of 350 g/m2.IEC 184/12www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---– 18 – 62561-2 © IEC:2012(E)5.3.3 Adhesion test5.3.3.1 General conditions for testsThe copper coated steel earth rods specimens used in and complying with 5.3.2, with one endcut to an angle of approximately 45° chamfer, shall be subjected to the following test.The specimens are driven through two steel clamping plates or the jaws of a vice set1 ( 0, 00-0, 25 ) mm less than the diameter of the specimens, so as to shear off sufficient metal toexpose the bond between the coating and the parent metal. A test arrangement for theadhesion test is shown in Figure 2.Keydms direction of mechanical stressFigure 2 – Typical test arrangement for adhesion test5.3.3.2 Acceptance criteriaAfter the test, the coating of the specimens shall show adherence to the parent metal.Separation of the copper from the steel is not acceptable.NOTE Adhesion test for galvanized steel is under consideration.5.3.4 Bend test5.3.4.1 General conditions for testsThe copper coated steel earth rods specimens used in and complying with 5.3.3 shall be bentthrough a radius equal to 5 times (± 1 mm) its diameter to an angle of 90 ° (± 5 °).IEC 185/12www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---62561-2 © IEC:2012(E) – 19 –5.3.4.2 Acceptance criteriaAfter the test, the specimens shall show no sharp edges, cracks or peeling around thebending area when inspected with normal or corrected vision without magnification.5.3.5 Environmental test5.3.5.1 General conditions for testsThe copper coated steel earth rods specimens used in and complying with 5.3.4 and the zinccoated earth rods specimens used and complying with 5.3.2 shall be subjected to anenvironmental test as specified in A.1, followed by a humid sulphurous atmosphere test asspecified in A.2.5.3.5.2 Acceptance criteriaAfter the test, the specimens shall satisfy the following criteria:a) the specimens shall be of good visual appearance and have no rough edges or burrsthroughout their length;b) the base metal of the specimens shall not exhibit any visual corrosive deterioration wheninspected with normal or corrected vision without magnification. 100 mm from both ends ofthe specimens are excluded from inspection.NOTE White rust is not considered as corrosive deterioration.5.3.6 Tensile strength tests5.3.6.1 General conditions for testsFor the methodology of carrying out tensile strength [Rm] tests, see ISO 6892-1. For thetesting of earth rods the test specimen should be tested un-machined as per D.1 ofISO 6892-1:2009.5.3.6.2 Acceptance criteriaThe specimens are deemed to have passed the tests if they comply with the requirements ofTable 4.5.3.7 Test for yield/tensile ratio5.3.7.1 General conditions for testsThe yield/tensile ratio is determined by ascertaining the upper yield strength [ReH] and dividingthe result by the tensile strength [Rm] (see Figure 3).5.3.7.2 Acceptance criteriaThe specimens are deemed to have passed the tests if they comply with the requirements ofTable 4.www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---– 20 – 62561-2 © IEC:2012(E)KeyA tensile strengthB elongationFigure 3 – Definitions of upper yield strength ReH (Mpa) and tensile strength Rm (Mpa)5.3.8 Electrical resistivity test5.3.8.1 General conditions for testsA sample length of earth rod, approximately 1, 2 m long, should be used for the test. Theresistance measurement should be taken over a 1 m (± 1 mm) distance, using amicro-ohmmeter, and the reading corrected to 20 °C, using appropriate correction factors.The sample shall be weighed.The resistivity of the sample length of the earth rod can then be calculated using the formula:resistivityr = R´ a ( mWm )whereR is the resistance in micro-ohms (mW) over a 1 m length;a is the cross sectional area (m2);ℓ is the unit length (m).See Annex D for a typical example calculation.The dimensions of the earth rod should be measured at three equally distributed points along1 m length and its cross sectional area should be within a (± 5 %) tolerance.5.3.8.2 Acceptance criteriaThe specimens are deemed to have passed the tests if they comply with the requirements ofTable 4.IEC 186/12www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---62561-2 © IEC:2012(E) – 21 –5.4 Joints for earth rods5.4.1 GeneralJoints for earth rods shall be subjected to the following tests to confirm their suitability for theintended application.5.4.2 Compression tests by mechanical means5.4.2.1 General conditions for testsEach specimen shall be assembled from two parts of rods each 500 mm long. The tests shallbe performed with suitable driving heads and driving tools following the manufacturer’s orsupplier’s instructions.The top of the specimens shall be impacted with a vibration hammer defined with thefollowing parameters, for a duration of 2 min:– percussion rate (2 000 ± 1 000) min–1;– single stroke impact energy (50 ± 10) Nm.A typical test arrangement is shown in Figure 4.www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---– 22 – 62561-2 © IEC:2012(E)Dimensions in millimetresKey1 specimen2 metal plate3 bearing4 driving head5 test holder6 vibration hammerFigure 4 – Typical test arrangement for the compression test by mechanical means5.4.2.2 Acceptance criteriaThe specimens are deemed to have passed the tests if their joints are not broken or do notshow any crack to normal or corrected vision without magnification.5.4.3 Environmental – Electrical tests5.4.3.1 General conditions for testsSpecimen assemblies used in and complying with 5.4.2 shall be subjected to anenvironmental test consisting of a salt mist test as specified in A.1, followed by a humidsulphurous atmosphere test as specified in A.2, and an additional ammonia atmosphereIEC 187/12www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---62561-2 © IEC:2012(E) – 23 –treatment as described in A.3 for specimens made of copper alloy with a copper content lessthan 80 %.After the conditioning test and without cleaning, the assembly shall be subjected to anelectrical test as per 6.3 of IEC 62561-1:-. Finally, the specimen assemblies shall then besubjected to a mechanical tensile force of 1 000 N (± 10 N).5.4.3.2 Acceptance criteriaThe specimens are deemed to have passed the tests if:a) the joints are not broken or do not show any crack to normal or corrected vision withoutmagnification;b) the contact resistance measured with a source of at least 10 A, as close as possible to thejoint, is equal or less than 1 mW, but in the case of stainless steel equal or less than2, 5 mW;c) the specimen assembly still remains intact.5.5 Marking test5.5.1 General conditions for testsThe marking is checked by inspection and by rubbing it by hand for 15 s with a piece of clothsoaked with water and again for 15 s with a piece of cloth soaked with white spirit/mineralspirit.Marking made by moulding, pressing or engraving is not subjected to this test.5.5.2 Acceptance criteriaAfter the test, the marking shall be legible.6 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)Products covered by this standard are, in normal use, passive in respect of electromagneticinfluences (emission and immunity).7 Structure and content of the test report7.1 GeneralThe purpose of this clause is to provide general requirements for laboratory test reports. It isintended to promote clear, complete reporting procedures for laboratories submitting testreports.The results of each test carried out by the laboratory shall be reported accurately, clearly, unambiguously and objectively, in accordance with any instructions in the test methods. Theresults shall be reported in a test report and shall include all the information necessary for theinterpretation of the test results and all information required by the method used.Particular care and attention shall be paid to the arrangement of the report, especially withregard to presentation of the test data and ease of assimilation by the reader. The formatshall be carefully and specifically designed for each type of test carried out, but the headingsshall be standardized as indicated below.The structure of each report shall include at least the following information contained in 7.2 to7.10.www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---– 24 – 62561-2 © IEC:2012(E)7.2 Report identificationa) A title or subject of the report;b) Name, address, e-mail and telephone number of the test laboratory;c) Name, address, e-mail and telephone number of the sub test laboratory where the testwas carried out if different from company which has been assigned to perform the test;d) Unique identification number (or serial number) of the test report;e) Name and address of the vendor;f) Report shall be paginated and the total number of pages indicated;g) Date of issue of report;h) Date(s) of performance of test(s);i) Signature and title, or an equivalent identification of the person(s) authorized to sign forthe testing laboratory for the content of the report;j) Signature and title of person(s) conducting the test.7.3 Specimen descriptiona) Sample description;b) Detailed description and unambiguous identification of the test sample and/or testassembly;c) Characterization and condition of the test sample and/or test assembly;d) Sampling procedure, where relevant;e) Date of receipt of test items;f) Photographs, drawings or any other visual documentation, if available.7.4 Conductora) Conductor material;b) Cross-section area, dimensions and shape. It is recommended that the actual crosssectionalarea should also be given.7.5 Standards and referencesa) Identification of the test standard used and the date of issue of the standard;b) Other relevant documentation with the documentation date.7.6 Test procedurea) Description of the test procedure;b) Justification for any deviations from, additions to or exclusions from the referencedstandard;c) Any other information relevant to a specific test such as environmental conditions;d) Configuration of testing assembly;e) Location of the arrangement in the testing area and measuring techniques.7.7 Testing equipment, descriptionDescription of equipment used for every test conducted, i.e. generator, conditioning/ ageingdevice.7.8 Measuring instruments descriptionCharacteristics and calibration date of all instruments used for measuring the values specifiedin the standard, i.e. radius gauge shunts, tensile testing machine, extensometer, ohmmeter, torque meter, thickness caliper gauge, etc.www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---62561-2 © IEC:2012(E) – 25 –7.9 Results and parameters recordeda) The required passing criteria for each test, defined by the standard;b) The relevant observed or derived results of the tests.All results shall be presented in tables, graphs, drawings, photographs or otherdocumentation of visual observations as appropriate.7.10 Statement of pass/failA statement of pass/fail identifying the part of the test for which the specimen has failed andalso a description of the failure.www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---– 26 – 62561-2 © IEC:2012(E)Annex A(normative)Environmental test for conductors, air termination rodsand earth lead-in rodsA.1 Salt mist testThe salt mist test shall be in accordance with IEC 60068-2-52:1996, except for Clauses 7, 10and 11 which are not applicable. The test is carried out using severity (2).If the salt mist chamber can maintain the temperature conditions as specified in 9.3 ofIEC 60068-2-52:1996 and a relative humidity of not less than 90 %, then the specimen mayremain in it for the humidity storage period.A.2 Humid sulphurous atmosphere testThe humid sulphurous atmosphere treatment shall be in accordance with ISO 6988:1985 withseven cycles with a concentration of sulphur dioxide of 667 ´ 10–6 (in volume) ± 25 ´ 10–6, except for Clauses 9 and 10 which are not applicable.Each cycle which has duration of 24 h is composed of a heating period of 8 h at atemperature of 40 °C ± 3 °C in the humid saturated atmosphere which is followed by a restperiod of 16 h. After that, the humid sulphurous atmosphere is replaced.If the test chamber maintains the temperature conditions as specified in 6.5.2 ofISO 6988:1985 then the specimen may remain in it for the storage period.A.3 Ammonia atmosphere treatmentThe ammonia atmosphere treatment shall be in accordance with ISO 6957:1988 for amoderate atmosphere with the pH value 10 except for 8.4 and Clause 9, which are notapplicable.www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---62561-2 © IEC:2012(E) – 27 –Annex B(normative)Requirements for the cross sectional area, mechanicaland electrical characteristics, tests to be appliedThe following is a summary of requirements for cross sectional area, mechanical andelectrical characteristics as well as tests to be applied for air termination conductors, airtermination rods, earth lead-in rods and down conductors according to Table 1 and Table 2.Table B.1 – Summary of requirements for various elements testedaccording to Table 1 and Table 2Material Configuration Cross sectional area, mechanical and electricalcharacteristics, tests to be appliedCopperTin platedcopperSolid tapeSolid roundStrandedTable 1 / Table 2Tests: Footnotes of Table 1, 5.2.4 / 5.2.5 / 5.2.6Aluminium Solid tapeSolid roundStrandedTable 1 / Table 2Tests: Footnotes of Table 1, 5.2.4 / 5.2.5 / 5.2.6Copper coatedaluminium alloySolid round Table 1 / Table 2Tests: Footnotes of Table 1, 5.2.2 / 5.2.3 / 5.2.4 / 5.2.5 / 5.2.6Aluminium alloy Solid tapeSolid roundStrandedTable 1 / Table 2Tests: NOTE of Table 1, 5.2.4 / 5.2.5 / 5.2.6Hot dippedgalvanizedsteelSolid tapeSolid roundStrandedTable 1 / Table 2Tests: Footnotes of Table 1, 5.2.2 / 5.2.3 / 5.2.4 / 5.2.5 / 5.2.6Copper coatedsteelSolid roundSolid tapeTable 1 / Table 2Tests: Footnotes of Table 1, 5.2.2 / 5.2.3 / 5.2.4 / 5.2.5 / 5.2.6Stainless steel Solid tapeSolid roundStrandedTable 1 / Table 2Tests: Footnotes of Table 1, 5.2.4 / 5.2.5 / 5.2.6www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---– 28 – 62561-2 © IEC:2012(E)Annex C(normative)Requirements for dimensions, mechanicaland electrical characteristics, tests to be appliedThe following is a summary of requirements for dimensions, mechanical and electricalcharacteristics as well as tests to be applied for earth electrodes according to Table 3 andTable 4.Table C.1 – Summary of requirements for various elementstested according to Table 3 and Table 4Material Configuration Application Dimensions, mechanical electricalcharacteristics, tests to be appliedCopper Solid roundSolid roundSolid tapePipeSolid plateLattice plateStrandedEarth conductorEarth rodEarth conductorEarth rodEarth plateEarth plateEarth conductorTable 3 / Table 4Tests: Footnotes of Table 3 / 5.2.4 / 5.2.5 / 5.2.6GalvanizedsteelSolid roundSolid tapeSolid plateLattice plateStrandedEarth conductorEarth conductorEarth plateEarth plateEarth conductorTable 3 / Table 4Tests: Footnotes of Table 3 / 5.2.2 / 5.2.3 / 5.2.4 /5.2.5 / 5.2.6GalvanizedsteelSolid roundPipeProfileEarth rodEarth rodEarth rodTable 3 / Table 4Tests: Footnotes of Table 3 / 5.3.2 / 5.3.5 / 5.3.6 /5.3.7 / 5.3.8Bare steel Solid roundSolid tapeEarth conductorEarth conductorTable 3 / Table 4Tests: Footnotes of Table 3 / 5.2.5 / 5.2.6Copper coatedsteelSolid roundEarth rod Table 3 / Table 4Tests: Footnotes of Table 3/ 5.3.2 / 5.3.3 / 5.3.4; 5.3.5/ 5.3.6 / 5.3.7 / 5.3.8Copper coatedsteelSolid roundSolid tapeEarth conductorEarth conductorTable 3 / Table 4Tests: Footnotes of Table 3 / 5.2.2 / 5.2.3 / 5.2.4 /5.2.5 / 5.2.6Stainless steel Solid roundSolid roundSolid tapeEarth conductorEarth rodEarth conductorTable 3 / Table 4Tests: Footnotes of Table 3 / 5.2.4 / 5.2.5 / 5.2.6Joints for earthrods_____ _____ Tests: Footnotes of Table 3 / 5.4.2 / 5.4.3. In addition, tests according to 6.3 of IEC 62561-1:-www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---62561-2 © IEC:2012(E) – 29 –Annex D(informative)Typical example calculation of conductor resistivityAs an example, it is assumed that the measured resistance of 1 m of copper conductorcorrected to 20 °C is:R = 234 mWThe measured mass of the 1, 2 m length of test sample is taken as:m = 772 gTherefore the mass of 1 m of this conductor is:643g/m1, 2 mm* = 772 g =The specific density of copper is:γ = 0, 0089 g/mm3Therefore the calculated cross-sectional area is:23 72, 2 mm0, 0089 g/mm643 g/m =Therefore the resistivity is:( ) 0, 0169 m1234 106 72, 2 106r = ´ ´ ´ = mWwww.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---– 30 – 62561-2 © IEC:2012(E)Annex E(informative)Typical example of calculation of the tensile strength of a coated materialCopper coated solid round rod with:· overall diameter: 14, 2 mm· radial copper coating thickness: 250 mm = 0, 25 mm· diameter of steel core: 14, 2 mm – 0, 5 mm = 13, 7 mmTherefore the cross-sectional area (a) is:a = p ´ r 2 = p ´ 6, 852 = 147, 43 mm2Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of copper coated earth rod (complete with copper coating) is:UTS = 88, 458 kNThe contribution the copper coating makes to the UTS is insignificant and so can be ignored.Therefore the tensile strength in N/mm2 is:600147, 43 mm88, 458 10 NaUTS23= ´ = N/mm2www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---62561-2 © IEC:2012(E) – 31 –Annex F(normative)Flow chart of tests for air termination conductors, air termination rods, earth lead-in rods and down conductorsIEC 188/12FAILEDNONORecord Electricalresistance, RoR1 > 50 % RoNo corrosionThree samples200 mm lengtheachCoating test(5.2.2)Electricalresistance R1Environmentaltest (5.2.4)Bend andadhesion test(5.2.3)R1 ≤ 50 % RoCorrosionThree samples1 200 mm lengtheachDimensionsTable 1NOEl. resistivity(5.2.6)NONO Tensile test(5.2.5)Non coatedCoatedDocumentation(4.2)NOAir termination conductor, air termination rod, earth lead in rod, down conductorPassedMarking(5.5)NOwww.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---– 32 – 62561-2 © IEC:2012(E)Annex G(normative)Flow chart of tests for earth rodsIEC 189/12FAILEDNONORecord Electricalresistance, RoR1 > 50 % RoNo corrosionThree samples200 mm lengtheachCoating test(5.2.2)Electricalresistance R1Environmentaltest (5.2.4)Bend andadhesion test(5.2.3)R1 ≤ 50 % RoCorrosionThree samples1 200 mm lengtheachDimensionsTable 1NOEl. resistivity(5.2.6)NONO Tensile test(5.2.5)Non coatedCoatedDocumentation(4.2)NOAir termination conductor, air termination rod, earth lead in rod, down conductorPassedMarking(5.5)NOwww.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---62561-2 © IEC:2012(E) – 33 –Annex H(normative)Flow chart of tests of joints for earth rodsIEC 190/12FAILEDCracksNOEnvironmentalelectrical and tensiletest (5.4.3.1)Compressiontest (5.4.2)NOJoints for earth rodsPassedAcceptancecriteria (5.4.3.2)Marking(5.5)NOSix earth rod samples500 mm lengtheach and three jointsDocumentation(4.2)www.TeraStandard.com--`, ````, `, ``, , , ``, `````, ``, `, ``-`-`, , `, , `, `, , `---– 34 – 62561-2 © IEC:2012(E)BibliographyIEC 60050 (all parts), International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (available at
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EXTERNAL LIGHTNING PROTECTION SYSTEM AS PER INDIAN STANDARDSIS/IEC 62305-3 & NBC-2016GeneralThere are no devices or methods capable of modifying the natural weather phenomena to the extent that they can prevent lightning discharges. Lightning flashes to, or nearby, structures (or lines connected to the structures) are hazardous to the structures, their contents and installations as well as to lines. This is why lightning protection measures are essentialLightning Protection System shall be in accordance with IS IEC 62305-3 & NBC-2016. Lightning Protection consists of external Protection for the building with Air termination, Down Conductors and Earthing and Internal protection for power lines with Surge Protective devices.Generally lightning between cloud and ground creates failures. How ever inter-cloud and intra-could lightning also can create potential differences and failures in electronic installation. More than 95 % of Lightning strikes are of Negative impulse and less than 5 % are of positive impulse. Positive impulses are mainly due to dry lightning in cold areas.Current parameters as per IS/IEC 62305 and the effects of lightning are as belowCurrent Parameters Symbol Unit Lightning Protection Level Effect I II III IV First positive ImpulsePeak Current I kA 200 150 100 MechanicalImpulse charge QSHORT C 100 75 50 Thermal (arc)Specific Energy W / R MJ/Ω 10 5.6 2.5 Mechanical & ThermalAverage Steepness di / dt kA / µS 20 15 10 Surges and flashoverTime Parameters T1 / T2 µS / µS 10/350 First Negative ImpulsePeak Current I kA 100 75 50 MechanicalAverage Steepness di / dt kA / µS 100 75 50 Surges and flashoverTime Parameters T1 / T2 µS / µS 1 / 200 Damages from lightning strike are due to Peak Current (I), Charge (C), Specific Energy (W/R) & Rate of change of current (di/dt). Lightning protection is designed to take care of these effects of lightning and hence the following parameters shall be strictly followed.Effect of Lightning on External LPS (Air termination, Down Conductor and Earthing)Effects on air-termination systems arise from both mechanical and thermal effects. Effects on down-conductors are thermal effects due to resistive heating & mechanical effects in parallel conductors and in Bends. The real problems with earth-termination electrodes are linked with chemical corrosion and mechanical damage caused by forces other than electro dynamic forces. Sizing and fixing of Materials are selected to handle the mechanical and thermal effects. Bends in down conductor shall strictly NOT be at 90 degree (right angles) & should have a curved path of 45 degree bend. Earth electrodes are selected based on the current handling capacity up to 1 second. To avoid corrosion problems as explained in IS/IEC 62305 (clause E.4.3.4 and E.5.4.3.2), GI is strictly not recommended inside concrete and in soil.Effect of Lightning on Internal LPS (SPD’s for POWER, DATA lines etc)Effect on internal LPS is mainly due to coupling and the rate of change of current. Due to Very high di/dt of the first negative stroke. The expected problem is the response time of SPD and the voltage drop in the connecting wires. SPD’s at the incoming panels shall have a response time less than 1 nano sec & shall be of BUSBAR Mounted type to avoid connecting wire length. LPL (Lightning Protection Level)LPL is a number associated with a set of lightning current parameters relevant to the probability that the associated minimum & maximum values do not exceed the normally occurring lightning. LPL can be determined by Risk analysis as explained in IS IEC 62305-2 or can be selected based on the guideline in NBC-2016.Application LPL*Computer Data Centers, Military Applications, Nuclear Power Stations, High raise Hotels/Hospitals, airports, essential services such as telecom towers 1EX-Zones in the industry and chemical sector, Low raise Hospitals & Hotels, fuel retail outlets, gas station, compressor station etc 2Schools, Banks, Residential Buildings, Temple, Churches, Mosques 3/4LPL levels, probability and basic design consideration:Class of LPS Lightning current MINIMUM Lightning current MAXIMUM Interception probability Rolling sphere radius (m) Mesh size(m) Down Conductor Spacing1 3 kA 200 kA 98% 20 5*5 102 5 kA 150 kA 95% 30 10*10 103 10 kA 100 kA 88% 45 15*15 154 16 kA 100 kA 81% 60 20*20 20Protection angle w.r.t Height Air termination system:Material, Configuration and Minimum cross sectional area of air terminal & down conductorsAir Termination mesh conductor and down conductors: 8 mm Aluminium alloy round conductor (50 mm2)Air Termination Rod: 10 mm, 16 mm & 40 mm solid Aluminium rods (combination of sizes) (tubes are not allowed)Joints / Connectors / Fixing materials: Connection materials Connector type GI fixing materials shall not be usedAluminium to Aluminium Aluminium or SS Aluminium to Steel SS Aluminium accessories if connection is between Aluminium materials are necessary. SS accessories if connections are between aluminium and copper / copper coated materials.Earth Termination Conductor: 10 mm solid copper coated steel conductor (100 microns min coating)Earth Termination Joints in soil: Exothermic weldingGI material for earthing shall not be used as per the recommendation in IS/IEC62305 as well as Kerala electrical inspectorate guideline.If the structure height is more than 60 meters, top 20% of the height of the structure shall be protected with a lateral air termination system. This is needed because the probability of flashes to the side is generally more for structures more than 60 meters in height. More importance need to be provided to Corners, Edges and significant protrusions such as balconies. Metallic handrails/ Aluminium frame of wall cladding if used in balconies shall be conned to air termination / down conductors. In PEB / Steel buildings where GI sheet roofing, air termination mesh / Rod shall be directly mounted on the sheet. Fixing materials used shall be in good electrical contact with the sheet, shall not create water leakage.No drilling is allowed in the terrace for fixing the air terminal, if the roof is made of concrete. Parapet wall is exception to this. Air terminal holder:Concrete Roof structure: Conductors shall be securely fixed on the terrace by means of concrete air terminal holders with suitable fixing materials which is fixed on the roof by adhesive or cement mortar taking care of varying weather conditions. Plastic air termination conductor holder is not allowed. The minimum height of this air terminal holder shall be 50 mm to avoid the contact of conductor with waterMetal Roof structure: Conductors shall be securely fixed on the terrace by means of air terminal holder which is fixed on the roof by metal conductor holder made of Stainless steel. As metal roof structures are normally tapered at an angle, there are no min height criteria for metal conductor holder.Recommended fixing distance of air terminal and down conductorsArrangement Recommended distance TAPE / Strip ROUNDHorizontal conductor on horizontal surface 500 mm 1000 mmHorizontal conductor on vertical surface 500 mm 1000 mmVertical conductor from Ground to 20m height 1000 mm 1000 mmVertical conductor above 20m height 500 mm 1000 mmIf antenna, Chillers or any other roof top electrical equipment is present in terrace, the same have to be protected by using vertical air terminal after calculating the safety or separation distance. The vertical air terminal has to have suitable supports to hold it. Wind speed need to be taken into account. Vertical air terminal must be connected to horizontal air terminal by using suitable connectors.At the crossings of the horizontal air terminals, suitable Cross connector has to be used.Safety or Separation distance: (not required for LPS using structural natural components)To avoid flash over to electrical/electronic apparatus, this equipment shall be kept at a distance away from LPS components more than the safety distance as per the following calculation.Safety/Separation distance (S) in m = (ki * kc*L) / kmCoefficient ki depends on class of LPL/LPS (ki = 0.08 for LPL1, 0.06 for LPL 2, 0.04 for LPL3 and 4)Coefficient kc depends on no of down conductors: kc = 0.66 for 2 down conductors, kc = 0.44 for 3 or more down conductorsValue of coefficient km = 1Value of L is the total distance between the equipment to be protected (for e.g. Antenna) to the equi-potential bonding bar situated just above the ground.Expansion pieceIn order to take care the expansion of the metal in summer and contraction of the metal in winter, expansion piece with suitable connectors have to be used at every 20m distance of horizontal air termination mesh.Joints and BendsThe lightning protective system shall have few joints as far as possible & air terminal & down conductor have to be straight. Where it is not possible, it should NOT be bent at 90 degree (right angles) & should have a curved path of 45 degree bend.Down conductor systemIn order to reduce the probability of damage to electronic/electrical equipment, the down conductors shall be arranged in equi distance in such a way that from the point of strike to earth, several parallel current paths should exist & length of the current path should be minimum. Down conductors should be installed at each exposed corner of the structure as a minimum. Maximum distance between down conductors shall be as per the table above.Test joints:At the connection to the earth conductor, a test joint should be fitted on each down conductor at a height of 1 m from the ground, except in the case of natural down conductors combined with foundation earth electrode. The purpose of test joint is to measure the earth resistance value. The remaining portion of down conductor (i.e., after the test joint should be mounted inside a plastic pipe of minimum 3 mm thickness.)Earth TerminationsFor earth termination system, 2 basic types of earth electrode arrangements are applicable. Type A & Type B arrangement. Type A arrangement: Comprises of horizontal or vertical earth electrode installed outside the structure to be protected connected to each down conductor. Minimum Length of vertical earth electrode shall be as belowClass of LPS Typical Length of each vertical earth electrode based on Soil resistivity Up to 500 Ω M 1000 Ω M 2000 Ω M 3000 Ω M1 2.5 meter 10 meters 25 meters 40 meter2 2.5 meter 5 meter 15 meters 22 meter3 2.5 meter 2.5 meter 2.5 meter 2.5 meter4 2.5 meter 2.5 meter 2.5 meter 2.5 meterIf horizontal electrodes are used, the length shall be double. In type A arrangement, the total number of earth electrodes shall not be less than two. Type A arrangement is suitable in places where electronic equipment are not located. Type B arrangement: This type of arrangement comprises either a ring conductor external to the structure to be protected, in contact with the soil for at least 80% of its total length or a foundation earth electrode. Ring earthing must be 1 meter away from the building and 0.5m below the ground as a closed loop. Such earth electrodes can also be meshed. For structures with extensive electronic systems or with high risk of fire, type B earthing is most preferable method. There is no limit in the resistance of Ring Earthing if the ring radius of the ring is larger than 50 meters or 80 meters for LPL 1 and 2. For LPL 3 and 4 this radius is about 5 meters. The overall resistance of earthing system shall not exceed 10 ohms.Galvanised steel (GI) as earthing material shall not be used.Lightning Counters: At least 2 down conductors in an installation shall have a lightning counter tested as per IEC 62561. The counter shall be digital type with replaceable battery. Battery life shall be minimum 3 years. The minimum measuring current is 1KA (8/20) and the maximum is 100 KA (10/350). The counter shall be outdoor type, IP65 and shall be able to record date, time and no of strikes.Quality and ConfirmationsAll materials and accessories shall be tested as per IEC 62561 for its mechanical / corrosion resistant / electrical conductivity. Vendor shall provide test reports along with completion certificate. GI (Hot dip galvanised or zinc electroplated) fixing materials and fasteners are not allowed.References:IS/IEC62305 – PROTECTION AGAINST LIGHTNING:Part 1: General PrinciplesPart 2: Risk ManagementPart 3: Protection of structuresPart 4: Protection of Electrical & Electronic equipment within structureNBC-2016: National Building Code of India – 2016IS3043: 1987: Code of practice for earthing.
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OPR lightning protection systemsExternal lightning protectionMain catalogABB OPR lightning protection systems | 1Lightning mechanism and location 2Lightning protection technologies 3Lightning protection risk analysis 8Lightning protection technical study 9Procedure for measuring the Early Streamer Emission of an ESEair terminal according to standard NF C 17-102 appendix C 10Tests and research 12Lightning capture devices 14Down conductors 16Equipotential bonding 19Earth termination systems 21Inspection ESEAT maintenance 23Lightning air terminal rangeESEAT typical installation 24OPR, the high pulse voltage, initiation advance lightningair terminal 26Early Streamer Emission Air Terminal - ESEAT 27Single Rod Air Terminal - SRAT 29Extension masts 30Masts and extension masts 31Pylons 32Lateral fixations 33Roof fixing accessories 35Conductors and coupling accessories 36Conductor fasteners 37Earth coupling accessories 39Earthing system 40Equipotential bonding 43Meshed conductorsTypical installation 44Accessories 45Index 46OPR lightning protection systemsExternal lightning protection1TXH000247C0203 - Edition June 20162 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsLightning mechanism and locationStormsThe presence of unstable, moist and warm air masses givesrise to the formation of cumulonimbus storm clouds. This typeof cloud is very extensive, both horizontally (about 10 km indiameter) and vertically (up to 15 km). Its highly characteristicshape is often compared with the profile of an anvil of whichit displays the upper and lower horizontal planes. The existenceof extreme temperature gradients in a cumulonimbus(the temperature can drop to -65 °C at the top) generatesvery rapid ascending air currents, and results in the electricalenergisation of the water particles.In a typical storm cloud, the upper part, consisting of icecrystals, is normally positively charged, whilst the lower part, consisting of water droplets, is negatively charged. Consequently, the lower part of the cloud causes the developmentof electrically opposite charges (i.e. positive over the part ofthe ground nearby).Thus the cumulonimbus formation constitutes a sort of hugeplate /ground capacitor whose median distance can oftenreach 1 to 2 km. The atmospheric electrical field on theground, about 600 V/m in fine weather is reversed and canreach an absolute value of 15 to 20 kV/m when a grounddischarge is imminent (the lightning stroke).Before and during the appearance of the lightning stroke, discharges can be seen both within the cloud and betweenclouds.LightningAccording to the direction in which the electrical dischargedevelops (downward or upward), and the polarity of thecharges it develops (negative or positive), four classes ofcloud-to-ground lightning stroke can be distinguished. Inpractice, lightning strokes of the descending and negativetype are by far the most frequent: it is estimated that on plainsand in our temperate zones, they account for 96 % of allcloud / ground discharges.Mechanism of a lightning strokeIt is impossible to discern the individual phases of the lightningstroke by simple visual observation. This can only bedone with high-speed cameras. Most lightning bolts exhibitthe following phenomena: a leader leaves a point in thecloud and travels about 50 m at a very high speed of around50 000 km/s. A second leader then leaves the same point, follows the previous path at comparable speed, goes beyondthe final point of the first leader by an approximately identicaldistance, then disappears in turn.The process is repeated until the tip of the last leader reachesa point a few dozen metres, or even just a few metres aboveground level.The ascending jets then converge, producing a return strokefrom the ground towards the cloud (the upward streamer) duringwhich the electric current circulates: The convergence ofthese two phenomena produces the main discharge, whichmay be followed by a series of secondary discharges, passingunbroken along the channel ionised by the main discharge.In an average negative lightning stroke, the maximum currentis around 35 000 A.----------- - - -+++ ++++ + ++++++++++ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 3Lightning protection technologiesThe effects of lightningThe effects of lightning are those of a high-strength impulsecurrent that propagates initially in a gaseous environment (theatmosphere), and then in a solid, more or less conductivemedium (the ground):– visual effects (flash): caused by the Townsend avalanchemechanism– acoustic effects: caused by the propagation of a shockwave (rise in pressure) originating in the discharge path;this effect is perceptible up to a range of around 10 km– thermal effect: heat generated by the Joule effect in theionised channel– electrodynamic effects: these are the mechanical forces appliedto the conductors placed in a magnetic field createdby the high voltage circulation. They may result in deformations– electrochemical effects: these relatively minor effects areconveyed in the form of electrolytic decomposition throughthe application of Faraday's law– induction effects: in a variable electroma-gnetic field, everyconductor harnesses induced current– effects on a living being (human or animal): the passage ofa transient current of a certain r.m.s value is sufficient toincur risks of electrocution by heart attack or respiratoryfailure, together with the risk of burns.Lightning causes two major types of accidents:– accidents caused by a direct stroke when the lightningstrikes a building or a specific zone. This can cause considerabledamage, usually by fire. Protection against thisdanger is provided by lightning air terminal systems– accidents caused indirectly, as when the lightning strikes orcauses power surges in power cables or transmission links.Hence the need to protect with SPD the equipment at riskagainst the surge voltage and indirect currents generated.Protection against direct lightning strokeTo protect a structure against lightning strokes, a preferredimpact point is selected to protect the surrounding structureand conduct the flow of the electric current towards theground, with minimal impedance on the path followed bythe lightning. Four types of protection systems meet theserequirements.Protection systems StandardsEarly streamer emission air terminal - France: NF C 17-102 (September 2011 edition)- Argentina: IRAM 2426- Spain: UNE 21186- Macedonia: MKS N.B4 810- Portugal: NP 4426- Romania: I-20- Slovakia: STN 34 1391- Serbia: JUS N.B4.810Single rods air terminals IEC 62 305-3Meshed cages IEC 62 305-3Stretched wires IEC 62 305-34 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsLightning protection system with early streamer emissionair terminal (ESEAT)These state-of-the-art technologies have been designed onthe basis of a series of patents registered jointly by HELITAand the French National Scientific Research Centre (CNRS).The OPR is equipped with an electronic device which is highpulse voltage of known and controlled frequency and amplitudeenabling the early formation of the upward leader which isthen continuously propagated towards the downward leader.This anticipation in the upward leader formation is essentialwith regard to the last scientific knowledge on the lightningattachment that acknowledge the fact that this one resultsfrom an upward leader competition. Today the upward leadercompetition is internationally recognized thanks to high speedcameras pictures of this phenomenon of attachment and to itsdigital simulation.The OPR draws its energy from the ambient electrical fieldduring the storm. After capturing the lightning stroke, the OPRdirects it towards the down conductors to the ground where itis dissipated.Triggering time of an ESEAT1 2Lightning protection technologiesABB OPR lightning protection systems | 5The early streamer emission (ESE) conceptDuring a storm, when the propagation field conditions arefavourable, the OPR first generates an upward leader. Thisleader from the OPR tip propagates towards the downwardleader from the cloud at an average speed of 1 m/µs.The triggering time ∆T (µs) is defined as the mean gain atthe sparkover instant (continuous propagation of the upwardleader) obtained with an ESE air terminal compared with asingle rod air terminal exposed to the same conditions. ∆T ismeasured in the high-voltage laboratory, all tests are definedin appendix C of the French standard NF C 17-102.The triggering time instance gain ∆T is associated with atriggering time distance gain ∆L.∆L = v. ∆T, where:– ∆L (m): gain in lead distance or sparkover distance– v (m/µs): average speed of the downward tracer (1 m/µs).– ∆T (µs): gain in sparkover time of the upward leadermeasured in laboratory conditions.OPR air terminals are especially effective for the protectionof classified industrial sites, administrative or public buildings, historical monuments and open-air sites such as sportsgrounds.Lightning protection technologies6 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsLightning protection technologiesLightning protection system with meshed cagesThis principle consists of dividing up and more easily dissipating thelightning current by a network of conductors and earths.A meshed cage installation has multiple down conductors andconsequently provides very effective protection for buildingsthat house equipment sensitive to electromagnetic disturbance.This is because the lightning current is divided among the downconductors and the low current circulating in the mesh creates verylittle disturbance by induction.A meshed cage installation is made up of:– devices to capture the atmospheric discharges consisting ofstrike points– roof conductors– down conductors– protection measures against injuries to leaving being due totouch and step voltages (e.g. warning notice)– an equipotential bonding between each earth and the generalearthing circuit of the structure; this one must be disconnectable.Installation conditionsLightning Protection System with an ESEAT is made of:– an Early Streamer Emission Air Terminal and its extension mast– two down conductors, or in case of several ESEAT oneconductor per ESEAT– a connecting link or test joint for each down conductor toenabling the earth resistance to be verified– a protecting flat to protect the down conductor for the last twometers above ground level– an earth designed to dissipate the lightning currents at thebottom of each down conductor– an equipotential bonding between each earth and the generalearthing circuit of the structure; this one must be disconnectable– protection measures against injuries to leaving being due totouch and step voltages (e.g. warning notice).Lightning protection system with single rod air terminalBy protruding upwards from the building, they are likely to triggerthe release of ascending streamers and thus be selected asimpact points by lightning strokes occurring within the vicinity of thestructure.This type of protection is especially recommended for radio stationsand antenna masts when the area requiring protection is relativelysmall.A single rod air terminal protection is made up of:– a rod lightning air terminal and its extension mast– two down conductors– a connection link or test joint on each down conductor to checkthe conductor earth resistance– a protecting flat to protect the down conductor for the last twometers above ground level– an equipotential bonding between each earth and the generalearthing circuit of the structure; this one must be disconnectable– protection measures against injuries to leaving being due totouch and step voltages (eg warning notice).ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 7Lightning protection technologiesStretched wiresThis system is composed of one or several conductor wiresstretched above the protected installation. The protection area isdetermined by applying the electro-geometrical model.The conductors must be earthed at each end.A stretched wire installation requires a thorough preliminary studyto consider issues such as mechanical strength, the type ofinstallation, and the insulation distances.This technology is used to protect ammunition depots and as ageneral rule in circumstances where the site cannot be protectedby using a building structure to support the conductors thatconvey the lightning currents to the earth.Protection against indirect lightning stroke effectsWhen lightning strikes cables and transmission lines (H.F. coaxialcables, telecommunication lines, power cables), a voltage surgeis propagated and may reach equipment in the surrounding. Thisvoltage surge can also be generated by induction due to theelectromagnetic radiation of the lightning flash.This can have many consequences: premature componentageing, destruction of printed circuit boards or component plating, equipment failure, data loss, programs hanging, line damage, etc. This is why you need to use Surge Protective Devices toprotect equipment liable to be affected by lightning strikes.The use of Surge Protective Devices is highly recommendedwhen the building is fitted with an external lightning protection. Atype 1 SPD is highly recommended or even mandatory in somecountries. A good protection is made in step with one type 1 fittedin the MDB when the SDB are fitted with type 2 SPDs.Early Streamer EmissionAir TerminalMDBSDB - SubDistribution BoardSDBTelephone inputMainpower inputMDB - MainDistribution BoardTelecomboardEquipotential bonding of metal partsDuring a lightning stroke or even as a result of indirect effects, equipotential bonding defects can, by differences in potential, generate sparkover causing risk for human being or fire into thestructure.This is why it is an essential part of effective lightning protection toensure that a site's equipotential bonding is effective and in goodcondition.The necessity of an electrical insulation between the air terminationor the down-conductor and the structural metal parts, themetal installations and the internal systems can be achieved byproviding a separation distance "s" between the parts. 8 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsLightning protection risk analysisRisk analysisAll lightning protection standards recommend a preliminarylightning risk analysis in three parts:– lightning risk evaluation– protection level selection– protection device definition.We have developed a software based on the calculations ofthe IEC 62305-2 or NF C 17-102 (appendix A) in order to giveyou an easy and accurate solution regarding the risk analysisof any installation you wish to protect.Lightning flash density map (flashes per km² per year)Protection device definitionIt is advisable to take into account the technical and architecturalconstraints when configuring the different components ofthe protection device.To facilitate your preliminary studies, we will provide a questionnairein which the minimum required information can beentered, and a calculation software package. 2 < Ng < 8 8 < Ng < 18ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 9Lightning protection technical studyOPR Designer softwareABB is happy to provide you with a complete new software in the field of lightningprotection.With a very simple approach you can create your technical study in one click!You can either draw, import file (AutoCAD, pictures…)and from that point get a complete bill of material(air terminals, down conductors, fixing accessoriesand earthing system), the positioning of the lightningprotection system on the structure.The solution is given in a complete pdf file that includes :– protected areas– lightning air terminals positioning– complete bill of material– detailed bill of material per building– catalogue pages for each component– test certificatesThis software is so far available in English, French, Spanish, Russian and Lithuanian version.You may download OPR designer at the following address :http://www.web-emedia.com/opr/10 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsProcedure for measuring the Early Streamer Emission of an ESEair terminal according to standard NF C 17-102 appendix CThis test procedure consists in evaluating the triggering timeof an Early Streamer Emission (ESEAT) compared with thereference Single Rod Air Terminal (SRAT) in high voltage laboratoryconditions. 50 shocks are applied to the single rod air terminalin the first configuration, then to the early streamer emission airterminal in a second configuration.Simulation of natural conditionsNatural conditions can be simulated in a laboratory by superimposinga permanent field and an impulse field associated with a plate /ground platform area (H). The tested lightning air terminal is placedon the ground, beneath the centre of this platform. In the experiment, the height H = 6 m, and the lightning air terminal heighth = 1.5 m.Electrical conditionsThe permanent field caused by the charge distribution in thecloud is represented by a negative DC voltage of -20 to -25 kV/m(simulating a negative field of around -20 to -25 kV/m) applied tothe upper plate. The impulse field caused by the approach of thedownload leader is simulated with a negative polarity wave appliedto the platform. The rise time of the wave Tm is 650 µs. The wavegradient, at the significant points is around 109 V/m/s.Geometrical conditionsThe volume used for the experiment must be large enough to allowthe ascending discharge to develop freely:– distance d between upper platform and tip ≥ 1 m– upper plate diameter ≥ distance from upper plate to ground.The lightning air terminal are tested in sequence in strictly identicalgeometrical conditions same height, same location, same distancebetween tip and upper platform.ESE air terminals triggering time calculationGeneral conditions– number of shocks: around 50 per configuration (sufficient for anaccurate analysis of the leader /Leader transition)– interval between shocks: the same for each configuration equalto 2 min.Recording– triggering time (TB): obtained directly by reading the data fromthe diagnostic equipment. This data is not characteristic, butit does enable a simple reading to establish whether or not ashock can yield a valid result– light emitted by the leader at the lightning air terminal tip (photomultipliers):this data provides a very accurate detection of theleader continuous propagation instant– pre-discharge current (coaxial shunt): the resulting curves confirmthe previous diagnostic data– space-time development of the discharge (image converter): theimage converter pictures provide a further means of analysingthe results.SRATLABORATORY EARTHdhHPLATEdhHESEATLABORATORY EARTHPLATEIREQ Laboratory (Canada - 2000)Other recordings and measurements– short-circuit current (coaxial shunt)– time/voltage characteristics for several shocks– rod to plate distance before and after each configuration– climatic parameters must be maintain for the 2 configurations :- pressure ±2 %- temperature ±10 %- relative humidity ±20 %.Triggering picture of a SRAT witha rotative high speed camera.Triggering picture of an ESEAT witha rotative high speed camera.ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 11Procedure for measuring the Early Streamer Emission of an ESEair terminal according to standard NF C 17-102 appendix CProcedure for measuring the Early Streamer Emission of an ESEair terminal according to standard NF C 17-102 appendix CT TESEATTSRAT t(µs)EESEATESRATEM expreference wavemeasuring waveDetermination of the early streamer emission of the ESEATThe triggering time instants, or continuous propagationinstants of the upward leader are obtained by analysing thediagnostic data described above. The mean is then calculatedfor each lightning air terminal tested, and the differencebetween the mean values is the ESE lightning air terminaltriggering time.T= TSRAT - TESEATABB lightning protection group has unique know-how andexperience in this field.Since 1996, we have generated more than 40 000 sparksusing this test procedure in the following high voltagelaboratories:– SIAME Laboratory - PAU UNIVERSITY (France)– Bazet VHV Laboratory - SEDIVER (France)– Volta HV Laboratory - MERLIN GERIN (France)– L.G.E.Les Renardières - ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE– Bagnères de Bigorre HV Laboratory - LEHTM (France)– Varennes IREQ Laboratory (Canada)– Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute - KERI (Korea)– WHVRI - Wuhan High Voltage Research Institute (China)– Beijing testing center surge protective devices (China).12 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsTests and researchObjectivesABB Lightning Protection Group has been investing for manyyears in research into lightning air terminal protection devices, and is constantly striving to enhance the performance of itsproducts.ABB's ongoing in situ research in France and abroad has threemain objectives:– to enhance the protection models– to measure in situ the effectiveness of ESEAT, alreadyevaluated in laboratory conditions– to qualify the dimensioning of the equipment in real-lifelightning strike conditions.Tests under Laboratory conditionsSince 2003 our factory located in Bagnères de Bigorre(France) has a high tech laboratory allowing to test our SurgeProtective Devices in 10/350 µs and 8/20 µs wave shapes aswell as our direct lightning range with lightning currents up to100 kA.We also test our lighting rods in a dedicated high voltagelaboratory close to our factory allowing normative tests thanksto an up to 3 MV generator.Tests in situsAn experimental site devoted to the study of direct lightningimpacts to a lightning protection system has been selected atthe top of the "Pic du Midi" in the French Pyrenées mountainsfor its high lightning impact density (30 days of storm peryear).The "Pic du Midi", famous astronomical observatory, offersan unique scientific environment for lightning observations incollaboration with astronomers.Purpose of the experiments:– to confirm the triggering time of ESEAT compared to singlerod air terminals– to direct the flow of the lightning currents captured by thelightning air terminal to low-voltage surge arresters via anappropriate earthing network– to test the resistance of the equipment to lightning shocksand climatological constraints.ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 13In situ tests at the Pic du Midi de BigorreThis unique location enables us to test our products in highlysevere conditions (high winds, extremely low temperatures) asthese tests are running at an altitude of 2880 m.Such tests give us the opportunity to complete ourunderstanding on lightning phenomenon. For this purpose, weare using high speed cameras, lightning current recorders aswell as field and light recorders.Another in situ test runs at the Taoulet station 2300 m to verifythat theoretical values announced are also validated in realconditions.A constant partnership with scientists permits to follow thesein situs sites and lead to fundamental research on lighting. Asan application example, a software that determines the weakpoints of a structure has been developed.Natural lightning experimental site– Located in the Hautes Pyrénées department of France– Keraunic level: 30 days of storms per annum.Experimental artificial lightning triggering sitesBecause lightning is a randomly occurring naturalphenomenon, artificial triggering techniques have beendeveloped to speed up the research process.When lightning conditions are prevalent the triggeringtechnique consists in sending a rocket with a trailing wire inthe direction of the storm clouds to cause a lightning strike atthe experimental site.The wire may comprise an insulating section in order togenerate the largest possible number of lightning strikes forexperimental purposes.– Site located at Privat d'Allier in Auvergne, FranceKeraunic level: 30Purpose of the experiments:- to qualify the lightning strike counters and- low-voltage arresters in situ- to qualify the resistance of the equipment to- triggered lightning strikes.– Site located at Camp Blanding (Florida/USA)Keraunic level: 80Purpose of the experiments:- to confirm the triggering time gain of the ESE air terminalscompared with single rod air terminals- to collect data with a view to improving the protectionmodels.Tests and research14 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsLightning capture devicesLightning air terminalsEarly Streamer Emission Air Terminals (ESEAT) or SingleRod Air Terminals (SRAT).As a general rule, the lightning air terminal should culminate atleast two metres above the highest points of the building(s) tobe protected.Its location should therefore be determined relative to buildingsuperstructures: chimneys, machine and equipment rooms, flagpoles, pylons or aerials. Ideally, these vulnerable pointsshould be selected for lightning air terminal installation.The lightning air terminal may be raised by an extension mast.Our stainless steel interlocking extension masts can reachan overall height of 8.50 or 11 m including the lightning airterminal height. They have been specially designed to obviatethe need for guying. However, if guying is essential (e.g. whenthe conductor is fixed with a flat support on the roof waterproofing, or is exposed to particularly strong winds), the guysshould be made of Ø 5.6 fibre glass. When metal cables areused for guying, the lower anchoring points should be interconnectedwith the down conductor by a conductive materialof the same type. We offer a range of fixtures adapted to mostrequirements.Installation specifications are detailed in the individual productdata sheets.If several lightning air terminals (ESEAT or SRAT) are used inthe outside installation on the same structure, they should beconnected by a conductor, except when this has to pass anobstacle of more than 40 cm in height.D ≤ 40 cm: connect ESEATsD ≥ 40 cm: do not connect air terminalsWhen protecting open-air sites such as sports grounds, golfcourses, swimming pools, and camping sites, ESEATs areinstalled on special supports such as lighting masts, pylons, or any other nearby structures from which the conductor cancover the area to be protected.Our software OPR Designer is able to design a completelightning protection system with all installations details, listingof material, protections areas layout, tests certificates within acomplete technical document that is available for the client inpdf format.d ≤ 40 cm d ≤ 40 cm d ≤ 40 cmInterconnection rule when several ESEAT on the same roofABB OPR lightning protection systems | 15Lightning capture devicesSpecial casesAntennasBy agreement with the user of the antenna, the device canbe mounted on the antenna mast, provided that allowance ismade for a number of factors notably:– the lightning air terminal tip must culminate at least 2 mabove the antenna– the aerial coaxial cable is routed inside the antenna mast– the common supporting mast will no need guying– the connection to the down conductor will be made using aclamp fixed to the foot of the mast.This process, widely used today, offers three advantages:– technical (it earths the aerial itself)– visual (there is only one mast)– cost.To be noted that an ESEAT electronic generator cannot beused in an atmosphere where the temperature is greater than120°.Industrial chimneyESE air terminal:– the lightning air terminal should be mounted on an offsetmast (2CTH0HRI3501) as far as possible from smoke andcorrosive vapours– the mast should be fixed to 2 points as shown in the diagram.To be noted that an ESEAT electronic generator cannot beused in an atmosphere where the temperature is greater than120°.Single rod air terminal:The lightning air terminals (1 or 2 m) should be mounted onstainless steel supports (2CTH0HPS2630) to enable mountingat a 30° angle. They will be interconnected by a belt conductorpositioned 50 cm from the summit of the chimney.When using 1 m air terminal at least two points should beused and placed at intervals of no more than 2 m around theperimeter.When using strike points of at least 2 m in height, the numberof points should be calculated to cover the protection radius.SteepleThe lightning air terminal have been designed to carry roofornaments (rooster, weathervane, cardinal points, etc.).The down conductor is then fixed below the ornaments.2 mminimumESEATØ 35 mm stainless steelESEAT mast2CTH070011R0000500 mmantennasteel hoopsdownconductorESEAToffset mastdown conductorwind indicatorroostertightening screwcardinalpointsconnecting clamp750 mmESEAT basedown conductorESEAT16 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsDown conductorsOverviewDown conductors should preferably be made with tin-platedred copper strips, 30 mm wide and 2 mm thick.Lightning is a high frequency current that flows along theperiphery of the conductors. For a like cross-section, a flatconductor has a greater periphery.An exception to the above rule is buildings with aluminiumcladding on which a copper down conductor might generatean electrolytic coupling phenomenon.Here a 30 x 3 mm aluminium strip should be used or bimetalconnection.In some cases where it is impossible to fix the copper strip, around Ø 8 mm tin-plated copper conductor. In the case wherethere is a need of mechanical movement of the down conductoruse a 30 x 3 mm flexible tin-platted copper braid.PathThe path should be planned to take account of the location ofthe earth termination. The path should be as straight and shortas possible avoiding any sharp bends or upturns. Curvatureradii should be no less than 20 cm. To divert the down conductorlaterally, 30 x 2 mm tin-plated red copper preformedbends should be used.The down conductor path should be chosen to avoid intersectionand to be routed along electrical ducts. Shieldingthe electrical ducts 1 m on each side can be done when it isimpossible to avoid crossing them. However when crossoverscannot be avoided, the conduit should be protected insidemetal sheeting extending by 1 m on either side of the crossover.This metal sheeting should be connected to the downconductor.However, in exceptional cases where an outside downconductor cannot be installed, the conductor may run downthrough a service duct, provided that this is used for no otherpurpose (and subject to agreement with the safety servicesand inspection organizations).When a building is fitted with a metallic external cladding orstone facing or in glass, or in the case of a fixed covering partof the facade, the down conductor can be installed on theconcrete facade or on the main structure, under the cladding.In this case, the conductive parts of the cladding must beconnected to the down conductor at the top and at thebottom.The down conductor, if not a copper one, shall be located atmore than 10 cm behind inflammable material of the outsidecladding if its cross section area if lower than 100 mm². Forcross section area of 100 mm² or greater, there is no need tokeep a distance between the down conductor and theflammable material.A specific calculation of the temperature increase may be performedto validate a different rule.The same requirements apply also to all inflammable materialeven on the roof (e.g. thatched roof).Indoor routingWhen a down conductor cannot be installed outside thestructure, it can be fitted inside on a part or on the full heightof the structure. In this case, the down conductor must beplaced inside a dedicated non flammable and insulating duct.The separation distance shall be calculated also for indoordown conductors in order to be able to determine the necessaryinsulation level of the dedicated duct.The building operator has to be aware of the resultingdifficulties to check and maintain the down conductors, and ofthe resulting risks of over voltages inside the building.Access of people to the specific cable channel should beavoided in stormy periods or measures of protection as peroutdoor down conductors should be fulfilled (see Annex DNF C 17-102 Vers September 2011) including equipotentialbondings of floors with the down conductor.Down-conductor bend shapesLd LdLdLLddL: length of the loop, in metersd: width of the loop, in metersThe risk of any dielectricbreakdown is avoided ifthe condition d>L/20is fulfilled.ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 17Down conductorsParapet wallsWhen the face of the parapet wall is less than or equal to40 cm, an upward section in the down conductor is allowedwith a maximum slope of no more than 45°. For parapet wallswith an upward section of more than 40 cm, space should beallowed or a hole drilled to accommodate a 50 mm minimumdiameter sheath and thereby avoid bypassing. If this is notpossible, supports of the same height as the parapet wallshould be installed to avoid an upturn.ConnectionThe lightning air terminal is connected to the downconductor by a connecting clamp that must be tightly securedon to the mast. The strip will be secured along the extensionmasts by stainless steel clamps. The conductors can beconnected together by coupling strips.FastenersWhatever the supporting medium the down conductor mustbe secured by at least 3 fasteners per linear meter. Insulatorsare used to distance the conductors and prevent contact witheasily flammable material (thatch or wood, for example).The fastener must be appropriate for the structure materialand installed so as not to impair watertightness and allow theconductor thermal extension.Test jointEach down conductor must be fitted with a test joint or connectionlink to enable measurement of the resistance of thelightning earth system alone and the electrical continuity of thedown conductor.The test coupling is usually placed about 2 m above groundlevel to make it accessible for inspection purposes only. To becompliant with standards, the test joint should be identified bythe words "lightning air terminal" and the "earth" symbol.On metal pylons, framework or cladding, the test joint shouldbe placed on the ground in inspection earth pit about 1 m fromthe foot of the metal wall to avoid distorting the resistancemeasurement of the earth connection by inevitably measuringthe electrical resistance on the other metallic networks in thebuilding.Protecting flatBetween the test joint and the ground, the strip is protectedby a 2 m galvanized or stainless steel sheet metal flat fixed by3 clamps supplied with the flat.The protecting flat can be bent to follow the profile of thebuilding.Warning Notice: Protection measures against step andtouch voltagesIn certain conditions, the vicinity of the down-conductors of anESE System, outside the structure, may be hazardous to lifestrip 30 x 2 mmcopper roundø 6 or 8 mm330lead play30 or 4030test jointprotectingathookdown conductorstriplead dowelcopper tape30 x 2 mm3 screw-in stainlesssteel clamps on the2 m of protecting atprotecting ateven if the ESE System has been designed and constructedaccording to the above-mentioned requirements.The hazard is reduced to a tolerable level if one of thefollowing conditions is fulfilled:The probability of persons approaching, or the duration oftheir presence outside the structure and close to the downconductors, is very low. The natural down-conductor systemconsists of typically more than ten columns of the extensivemetal framework of the structure or of several pillars ofinterconnected steel of the structure, with the electricalcontinuity assured;The contact resistance of the surface layer of the soil, within3 m of the down-conductor, is not less than 100 kΩ.NOTE: A layer of insulating material, e.g. asphalt, of 5 cmthickness (or a layer of gravel 15 cm thick) generally reducesthe hazard to a tolerable level. If none of these conditions isfulfilled, protection measures shall be adopted against injury toliving beings due to touch voltages as follows:– insulation of the exposed down-conductor is providedgiving a 100 kV, 1.2/50 μs impulse withstand voltage, e.g. at least 3 mm cross-linked polyethylene– physical restrictions and/or warning notices to minimize theprobability of down-conductors being touched. We proposein our catalogue Warning Notice (2CTH0PSH2009) toprevent touch voltage.40 cmmax45°maxWarning Notice18 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsDown conductorsLightning stroke counterWhen the regulations require the installation of a lightningstroke counter, or to know when to make a complete verificationof the installation after a lightning stroke. One per ESEATor SRAT should be fitted. Regarding mesh cage installationone every 4 down conductor should be installed. The test jointaround 2 m above the ground. The counter is connected inserial on the down conductor.Lightning stroke counter and recorder is used to store dateand time of the impact as well as lightning current values.Meshed conductorsOn roofIs carried on the roof meshes with conductors of which thewidth depends on the level of protection and those ones mustnot be greater than 20 m as follows:It is primarily a closed polygon whose perimeter is adjacentthe periphery of the roof, this polygon is then complete bytransverse conductors to satisfy the condition on the maximumwidth of the meshes. If there is a ridge, the conductormust follow it.Air terminals are placed vertically at the highest and mostvulnerable points on the buildings (roof ridges, salient points, edges, corners, etc.).They are arranged at regular intervals around the periphery ofthe roof as follows:– the distance between two 30 cm air terminals should notexceed 15 m– the distance between two 50 cm air terminals should notexceed 20 m– strike air terminals not located on the outer polygon areconnected to the polygon as follows:- either by a conductor excluding any upturn if the air terminalsis less than 5 m from the polygon- or by two conductors in opposite directions forming atransversal section if the air terminals is located morethan 5 m from the polygon.On wallThe down conductors are placed on the corners and salientfeatures of the building in a layout that should be as symmetricaland regular as possible.The average distance between two adjacent down conductorsdepends on the required protection level.Protection level(IEC 62305-2)Distance between 2 downconductors (IEC 62305-3)Roof mesh size(IEC 62305-3)I 10 m 5 x 5II 10 m 10 x 10III 15 m 15 x 15IV 20 m 20 x 20ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 19Equipotential bondingOverviewWhen lightning current flows through a conductor, differencesin potential appear between the conductor and nearby metallicnetworks (steel framework, pipes, etc.) inside or outsidethe building. Dangerous sparks may be produced betweenthe two ends of the resulting open loop.There are two ways to avoid this problem:a) Establish an interconnection providing an equipotentialbond between the conductor and the metallic networksb) Allow a separation distance between the conductor and themetallic networks.The separation distance is the distance beyond which no dangeroussparks can be produced between the down conductorcarrying the lightning current and nearby metallic networks.Because it is often difficult to guarantee that the lightningprotection system is sufficiently isolated during installation orwill remain so in the event of structural changes, on-site work, etc., equipotential bonding is often preferred.There are, however, some cases in which equipotential bondingis not used (e.g. when there are flammable or explosivepiping net-works). In this case, the down conductors arerouted beyond the separation distance "s".Separation distance calculationS (m) = ki.kc.Lkmwhere:"kc" is a coefficient determined by the number of downconductors per ESEAT:kc = 1 for one down conductor, kc = 0.75 for two down conductors, kc = 0.6 for three conductors, kc = 0.41 for four ormore conductors." ki " is determined by the required protection level:ki = 0.08 for protection level 1 (high protection), for veryexposed or strategic buildingski = 0.06 for protection level 2 (reinforced protection, exposedbuilding)ki = 0.04 for protection level 3 & 4 (standard protection)"km" is related to the material situated between the twoloop ends:km : 1 for airkm = 0.5 for a solid material other than metal"L" is the length between the point at which proximity ismeasured and the point at which the metallic network isearthed or the nearest equipotential bonding point.S1L1L2S2air conditioningearthingbarExampleAn ESEAT with two down conductors protects a 20 m highbuilding with protection level I.– Question 1 : Should an air conditioning extractor locatedon the roof be interconnected if 3 m away from the downconductor? Length L1 = 25 m.Answer 1 : S1 = 0.08 x 0.75 x 25 / 1 = 1.5 mSince the distance (3 m) between the conductor and the airconditioningsystem is greater than the separation distance(1.5 meters), there is no need to interconnect this extractor.– Question 2 : Should the computer located in the building 3m away from the down conductor be interconnected withthe conductor, where L2 = 10 m?Answer 2 : S2 = 0.08 x 0.75 x 10 / 0.5 = 1.2 mSince the distance between the computer and the downconductor (3 m) is greater than the separation distance(1.2 m), there is no need to interconnect this computer.A tool is available that can be used to quickly calculate theseparation distances.20 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsEquipotential bondingEquipotential bonding of external metallic networksThe equipotential bonding of external metallic networks is anintegral part of the outdoor lightning protection installation justlike the down conductors and their earths.All conductive metallic networks located at a distance of lessthan s (separation distance) from a conductor should beconnected to the conductor by a conductive material with alike cross-section.The aerial masts and small posts supporting electrical powerlines should be connected to the conductor via a mastarrester. Earthing systems embedded in walls should beconnected to the conductor if terminal connections have beenprovided.Equipotential bonding of internal metallic networksThe equipotential bonding of internal metallic networks is anintegral part of the indoor lightning protection installation.All conductive metallic networks in the structure (steelframeworks, ducts, sheathing, electrical raceways or telecommunicationcable trays, etc.) should be connected to theconductor. This is done by using a conductive material witha cross-section of at least 6 mm² for copper or 16 mm² forsteel to connect to equipotential bonding bars installed insidethe structure and connected in turn to the closest point of theearthing circuit.Unscreened telecommunication or electrical conductorsshould be bonded to the lightning protection system via surgearresters.Equipotential bonding of earthsThis is done by using a conductive material with across-section of at least 16 mm² for copper or 50 mm²for steel to connect bonding bar to earth termination system.interconnection withbuilding loop112233telephone line protectionlow voltage power supplyprotectionIT system protection44TV protectionESEAT OPRABB OPR lightning protection systems | 21Earth termination systemsOverviewEach down conductor in a lightning protection system must beconnected to an earth termination system which fulfils four conditions:– The earth termination resistance valueInternational standards stipulate an earth termination resistancevalue of less than 10 ohms.This value should be measured on the earth connection isolatedfrom any other conductive component.If the resistance value of 10 ohms cannot be achieved, the earthtermination is nonetheless considered compliant if it is made up ofat least 160 m (protection level 1) or 100 m (protection level 2, 3& 4) of conductors or electrodes, each section measuring no morethan 20 m.– Current carrying capacityThis is an often overlooked but essential aspect of lightningconduction. To minimise the earthing system impedance value, a parallel configuration of three electrodes is strongly recommendedinstead of just one excessively long electrode.– Equipotential bondingStandards require the equipotential bonding of lightningearth termination systems with the existing earthing systems.This must be done using 16 mm² (copper) or 50 mm² (steel)minimum cross section conductor.– Distance from buried utilitiesEarth termination should be at least 2 m (if soil resistivity is over500 ohms/m 5 m) distant from any buried metal pipe or electricalconduit, not connected to the main equipotential bonding of thestructure.Inspection earth pitThe connection parts of an earth termination system (duck's footconnector, earth rod, test joint) can be accessed in an inspection earthpit.Lightning air terminalsDucks foot connectorThe minimum earth termination system is made up of 25 m of30 x 2 mm tin-plated copper strip, split into 3 strands buried in3 trenches at a depth of 60 to 80 cm dug in a fan shape like a duck'sfoot: one end of the longest strand is connected to the test joint, thetwo other strands being linked to a special connection known as aduck foot's connector.Earth rodsWhen the site topography does not lend itself to the installation of aduck's foot as described above, an earth termination system can bedeveloped using at least 3 copper earth rods each with a minimumlength of 2 m, buried vertically in the ground; the rods should bespaced at intervals of about 2 m and at a mandatory distance of 1 mto 1.5 m from the foundations.protectionat30 x 2 mm down conductor6 to 9 m depending on soilresistance1 m from wall depth60 to 80 cm8 to 12 mstainlesssteel clampNB: the earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning gridDUCK'S FOOT EARTHTERMINATION SYSTEMduck'sfootconnectorDuck's foot earth termination systemIt is recommended to cover the earth termination system with a red or orange warningplastic mesh.protectionat30 x 2 mm strip2 m1 m from wall depth60 to 80 cmstainless steelclampNB: the earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning grid 2 m rodearth rod clampROD TRIANGLE EARTHTERMINATION SYSTEMRod triangle earth termination systemIt is recommended to cover the earth termination system with a red or orange warningplastic mesh.DUCK'S FOOT EARTH TERMINATIONSYSTEM WITH EARTH RODSprotectionat30 x 2 mm strip8 to 12 mdepth 6 to 9 m 60 to 80 cmduck'sfootconnectorstainlesssteel clampNB: the earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning gridrodearth rodclamp1 m from wallDuck's foot earth termination system with earth rodsIt is recommended to cover the earth termination system with a red or orange warningplastic mesh.22 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsEarth termination systemsCombinedIf the soil type is not altogether suitable for a duck's foot connector, a combination of duck's foot and earth rods will significantlyenhance protection (better earth resistance). In this case, the endof each duck foot connector strand is connected to an earth rod.Meshed conductorsDuck's foot connectorThe earth connection is made up of 3 conductors each 3 mminimum in length, buried horizontally at a depth of 60 to 80 cm.One of the strips is connected to one end of the test joint; theother two splay out at an angle of 45° on either side of this centralstrand and are coupled to it with a special connector known as aduck's foot connector. The resistance value must be less than 10ohms. If the resistance value of 10 ohms cannot be achieved, theearth termination is nonetheless considered compliant if it is madeup of at least 160 m of electrode in level 1, 100 m in level 2 and10 m in level 3 & 4.Earth rodsThe earth connection is made up of 2 spiked vertical rods at least2 m in length, connected to each other and to the down conductor, and at least 2 m from each other. The rods should be 1 m to1.5 m from the foundations. The earth termination systems in abuilding should be connected together with a conductor with thesame cross-section and of the same type as the down conductors.Where there is an existing entrenched earth protection loopin the foundations for the building's 2 m flat electrical installations, there is no need to create a new loop: the earth terminations cansimply 0.6 m be interconnected by a tin-plated 30 x 2 mm copperstrip. The resistance value must be less than 10 ohms. If the resistancevalue of 10 ohms cannot be achieved, the earth terminationis nonetheless considered compliant if it is made up of at least160 m (80 m if vertical rods) of electrode in level 1, 100 m (50 m ifvertical rods) in level 2 and 10 m (5 m if vertical rods) in level 3 & 4.Earthing system equipotential bondingWhen the protected building or area has an existing earth terminationsystem for the electrical installations, the lightning earthtermination systems should be connected to it.This interconnection should be made to the earthing circuit at theclosest point to the down conductor.When this is impossible in an existing building, the interconnectionshould be made to the earth plate. In this case, the interconnectingconductor should be constructed such that no currents areinduced in nearby equipment cables.In all cases, the interconnection should include a device that canbe disconnected to enable measurements of the resistance of thelightning earth termination system.This device can be made up of either an interconnection box forequipotential bonding fixed to the main wall of the building, or anequipotential bonding bar located in an inspection earth pit.Duck's foot system for a meshed cageIt is recommended to cover the earth termination system with a red or orange warningplastic mesh.protectionat30 x 2 mm strip3 m1 m from wall depth60 to 80 cm4 mstainlesssteel clampNB: the earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning gridDUCK'S FOOT SYSTEMFOR A MESHED CAGEduck'sfootconnector2 m0.6 m2 mtestjointprotectionat2 rodsD: down conductor of a lightning air terminalB: entrenched building loopP: lightning conductor earth termination systemtestjointdisconnectableconnectionDPBABB OPR lightning protection systems | 23Inspection ESEAT maintenanceThe current standards NF C 17-102 September 2011 editionrecommends regular, periodical inspections of the lightningprotection system.The following schedules are recommended:Protection level Visual inspection(year)Complete inspection(year)Critical system completeinspection (year)I and II 1 2 1III and IV 2 4 1Note: Critical systems shall be defined by laws or end users.A lightning protection system should also be inspected wheneverthe protection structure is modified, repaired or when thestructure has been struck by lightning.Lightning strikes can be recorded by a lightning strike counterinstalled on one of the down conductors.ESEAT maintenance kit, a unique solutionWith its experience of ESEAT development and specialtesting processes, ABB offers a simple and complete solution:a telescopic 8 m pole supplied with a portable test case toenable simple in situ inspections.The device can be used without dismantling the ESEAT.The following aspects of an ESE System installationshould be inspected (see NF C 17-102 September 2011edition pagraph 8)A visual inspection should be performed to make sure that:– no damage related to lightning has been noted– integrity of ESE System has not been modified– no extension or modification of the protected structureneeds the installation of additional lightning protectionmeasures– the electrical continuity of visible conductors is correct– all component fasteners and mechanical protectors are ingood condition– no parts have been weakened by corrosion– the separation distance is respected and there are enoughequipotential bondings and their condition is correct– SPD end of life indicator is correct– maintenance operations results are checked and recordedComplete verification includes visual verification and thefollowing measurements to check:– the electrical continuity of hidden conductors– the earth termination system resistance values (anyvariation with regards to initial values > 50 % should beanalysed)– properly working of ESEAT according to manufacturerprocedure.NOTE: High frequency earth system measurement is feasible during installation or inmaintenance operation in order to check the coherence between the needs and theinstalled earth system.The findings of each scheduled inspection should be recordedin a detailed report stating the required corrective measures.Any faults identified in a scheduled inspection should becorrected as soon as possible in order to maintain optimallightning protection.Initial verification should be performed once the ESE systeminstallation is completed in order to make sure that it complieswith the NF C 17-102 standard requirements.24 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsLightning air terminal rangeESEAT typical installation on masonry buildingOPR lightning conductorp.26Coupling accessoriesp.36Hooks p.37Test joint p.39Duck foot connectorp.41Lightning strokecounter and recorderp.43Extension mast p.31Conductor supportingstud p.37Ruberalu bracketsp.37Antenna mastarrester p.43Boltedbrackets p.33Protecting flatp.39Equipotential boxp.39Type 1 surge protective devicehighly recommendedABB OPR lightning protection systems | 25Lightning air terminal rangeESEAT typical installation on metal claddingOPR lightningconductor p.26Threaded basesp.35Test joint p.39Interconnection boxp.39Lightning strokecounter p.43Stainless steel clipp.37Protecting flatp.39Water deflecting conesp.35WaterproofStainless steel clipp.37Type 1 surge protective devicehighly recommended26 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsLightning air terminal range - Early Streamer EmissionOPR, the high pulse voltage, initiation advance lightningair terminalABB continues to innovate, and has developed a new generationof lightning devices. The new OPR range with increasedinitiation advance performances, represents further progressin terms of protection, operating autonomy and ease of maintenance.These advancements reinforce ABB's position asInternational leader in direct lightning protection with over 200000 installations throughout the world.ABB manufacturing qualityThe enviable reputation of the OPR has been earned throughmaintaining a consistently high quality in manufacture. Beforeleaving the factory, each OPR has been tested for installationbreakdown at high voltage, and subjected to a currenttest that ensures its performance when conducting lightningdischarges. The high voltage output pulses at the OPR arealso examined to verify correct amplitude and frequency. TheOPR is built to withstand the arduous conditions encounteredin service, and its ongoing performance can be monitoredsimply and quickly using the OPR test set.The advantage of initiation advanceThe unique efficiency of the OPR lightning air terminal isbased on a specific initiation advance, well before the naturalformation of an upward leader, the OPR generates a leaderthat rapidly propagates to capture the lightning and direct it toearth. Validated in the laboratory, this gain in time relative tothe simple rod provides additional essential protection.Complete autonomyDuring a storm the ambient electric field may rise to between10 to 20 kV/m. As soon as the field exceeds a thresholdrepresenting the minimum risk of a lightning strike, the OPRlightning terminal is activated. It draws its energy from theambient electric field the energy required to generate highvoltage pulses, creating and propagating an upward leader.No other power sources are required, and no radioactivecomponents are used.Upward leaders Return arc Meeting pointA B C DOPR Upward leaders Meeting pointA B C DABB OPR lightning protection systems | 27RodCheck system: visual strike indicatorThe aim of the RodCheck system is to give visual information on the intensity of the lightning current caughtby the OPR even from a long distance.We need to keep in mind that the lightning rod is a security device that permits to limit risk and thereforecontributes to the safety of the people. Indeed a lightning impact may lead to explosion, to fire and consequentlybe a risk for the people within the structure.As for any security device, it is important to figure out directly its degree of aging, which is linked to the lightningstrike current to which it has been subjected.On many sites lightning rods are usually equipped with counters that detect the flow of current without necessarilygiving information about its intensity.Only a digital counter could give such characteristics, but it would undoubtedly increase the price of theoverall installation.On the other hand, the new edition of the NF C 17-102 also states that from January 2009 it has been compulsoryto have two down conductors per ESEAT. Therefore, as the counters are usually placed only on oneof the two down conductors, they don't record the entire value of the current.The RodCheck system has been developed so as to solve this specific security issue and it provides anestimate of the intensity of the lightning strike at first glance.Thanks to the new RodCheck technology, the OPR considerably reinforces and improves the security of sitesand people and provides the right answer to a perfectly justified question: "Has the lightning rod been deeplyhit and is it necessary to check the installation?"This visual indicator is made of a UV resistant EPDM shell, mounted directly on the OPR external spark gap.RodCheck has not beenhit by a lightning strokeRodCheck after lightningstroke of few kARodCheck after severalstrokes or one of more than40 kALightning air terminal rangeEarly Streamer Emission Air Terminal - ESEAT1 2 3In the examples 2 and 3 we recommend performing a test of the OPR's electronics and afterwards the redring may be put back in the initial position (example 1).As long as there is no indication of strike it is not necessary to test the generator. But on the other hand, westrongly recommend a complete check of the lighting rod OPR, including the check of its internal electronicsystem in case of a lightning impact. An 8 m high pole connected to a test case is needed to carry out thetest of the generator.28 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsLightning air terminal rangeEarly Streamer Emission Air Terminal - ESEATTypical applicationsIndustrial sites, buildings, warehouses, where a large protection area is needed.Ordering detailsOPR∆T Description Type Order code Ean code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)µs kg30 OPR 30 IMH3000 2CTB899800R7000 3660308514172 1 2.40045 OPR 45 IMH4500 2CTB899800R7500 3660308514706 1 2.40060 OPR 60 IMH6000 2CTB899800R7100 3660308514189 1 2.400Mast to be ordered separately.Maximum operating temperature: 120 °C.OPR radius of protectionLevel of protection I (r = 20 m) II (r = 30 m) III (r = 45 m) IV (r = 60 m)Type OPR 30 OPR 45 OPR 60 OPR 30 OPR 45 OPR 60 OPR 30 OPR 45 OPR 60 OPR 30 OPR 45 OPR 60h (m) Radius of protection Rp (m)2 19 25 31 22 28 35 25 32 39 28 36 433 29 38 47 33 42 52 38 48 58 43 57 644 38 51 63 44 57 69 51 65 78 57 72 855 48 63 79 55 71 86 63 81 97 71 89 1076 48 63 79 55 71 87 64 81 97 72 90 1078 49 64 79 56 72 87 65 82 98 73 91 10810 49 64 79 57 72 88 66 83 99 75 92 10915 50 65 80 58 73 89 69 85 101 78 95 11120 50 65 80 59 74 89 71 86 102 81 97 11345 43 65 76 58 75 89 75 90 105 89 104 11950 40 65 74 57 75 88 75 90 105 89 104 12055 36 65 72 55 75 86 74 90 105 90 105 12060 30 65 69 52 75 85 73 90 104 90 105 120Note: the optimized radius of protection is reached when placing the ESE lightning conductor at 5 m above the highest point of the structure to protect. A minimum of 2 m is a must.Rp3Rp1 Rp2h3h1 h2Rp(h) : Protection radius at a given height (h) for h ≥ 5 mRp(h) = √ 2rh - h2 + ∆(2r + ∆)For h < 5 m, refer to the table aboveh : Height of the OPR tip above the surface(s) to be protectedr(m) : Standardized striking distance∆(m) = 106 .∆T (OPR efficiency)Calculating protected areasThe radius of protection Rp of an OPR is given by French standard NFC 17-102 (September 2011 edition).It depends on the ESEAT efficiency ∆T of the OPR measured in thehigh voltage laboratory, on the levels of protection I, II, III or IV calculatedaccording to the lightning risk assessment guides or standards(NF C 17-102 annex A or IEC 62305-2, guides UTE C 17-100-2 or UTEC 17-108) and on the height h of the lightning air terminal over the areato be protected (minimum height = 2 m).The protection radius is calculated according to Annex C in Frenchstandard NF C 17-102. For OPR 60, limiting the value of ∆T used inthe protection radius calculations to 60 µs (limited 60 µs in accordancewith the paragraph 5.2.2 of the NF C 17-102 standard).LPL I LPL II LPL III LPL IVRolling sphere radius r(m) 20 30 45 60ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 29Typical applicationsSmall structure, pylons, chimney.DescriptionThe rods are made of a tapered solid stainless steel tip (L = 0.20 m), a stainless steel mast of 1 or 2 mlength, to be ordered separately. In accordance with standard IEC 62305-3 (paragraph 5.2.2), the protectionradii are as follows:Radius of protection Rp (m)HmLevel of protection HmI II III IV2 5 6 9 114 8 10 12 156 10 12 15 208 10 13 17 2110 10 14 17 2220 10 15 21 29H: height of conductor tip above protected surface(s).Rp: radius of protection in horizontal plane located at a vertical distance h from the conductor tip.Ordering detailsLength Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)m kg0.20 Stainless steel tip (A) and connection clamp (D) PTS3000 2CTH010004R0000 3660308521828 2.5001.00 1 m stainless steel air termination mast (B) HPI3001 2CTH010001R0000 3660308521316 2.0002.00 2 m stainless steel air termination mast (C) HPI3002 2CTH010002R0000 3660308521323 3.500αhRp(B) 1 m(C) 2 mPROTECTION OF INDIVIDUAL HOUSES2 m minimumprotecting flatdisconnectable equipotential bondingtype 1 powerlineprotectiontelephone lineprotectioncoaxial protectionlightning earth systemtest jointdown conductorsingle rod air terminalRp = 5 to 29 melectrical earthingLightning air terminal rangeSingle Rod Air Terminal - SRAT(A)(D)Protection of individual houses30 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsInstallationLightning air terminal rangeExtension mastsImportant: All these extension masts need to be orderedwith their screw and fixing kits (see next page)OPRORØ 30a) 1.3 m stainless steel ESEAT mast: MAT3001orb) 2.3 m stainless steel ESEAT mast: MAT3002Ø 35d) 2 m extension mast: RAL3502ore) 3 m extension mast: RAL3503Ø 42f) 2 m extension mast: RAL4202org) 3 m extension mast: RAL4203Ø 50h) 2 m extension mast: RAL5002ori) 3 m extension mast: RAL5003Ø 35c) 3 m stainless steel ESEAT mast: MAT3503+ kit for MAT3503: KFP0035ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 31MastsMastsHeight Description Type Order code Ean code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)m kg1.3 Stainless steel ESEAT mast Ø 30 MAT3001 2CTH070001R0000 3660308521651 1 1.9002.3 Stainless steel ESEAT mast Ø 30 MAT3002 2CTH070002R0000 3660308521668 1 3.0003.0 Stainless steel ESEAT mast Ø 35 MAT3503 2CTH070011R0000 3660308521750 1 5.200To be noted that the MAT3503 needs to be ordered with it screw and fixing kit KFP0035 made of a connecting clamp especiallydesigned for Ø 35 mm mast.Kit for MAT3503Description Type Order code Ean code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgScrew and fixing KFP0035 2CTH050027R0000 3660308521781 1 -Extension mastsDescriptionAll the extension masts have to be ordered with their screw kits.Ordering detailsDescription Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgExtension masts2 m stainless steel mast Ø 35 RAL3502 2CTH070005R0000 3660308521699 1 5.2003 m stainless steel mast Ø 35 RAL3503 2CTH070006R0000 3660308521705 1 6.4002 m stainless steel mast Ø 42 RAL4202 2CTH070007R0000 3660308521712 1 6.4003 m stainless steel mast Ø 42 RAL4203 2CTH070008R0000 3660308521729 1 9.6002 m stainless steel mast Ø 50 RAL5002 2CTH070009R0000 3660308521736 1 7.5003 m stainless steel mast Ø 50 RAL5003 2CTH070010R0000 3660308521743 1 11.000Screw and fixing kitScrew and fixing kit for stainless steel mast Ø 35 and 42 (1) KFR3542 2CTH050026R0000 3660308521774 1 –Screw and fixing kit for stainless steel mast Ø 50 (2) KFR0050 2CTH050028R0000 3660308521798 1 –(1) 5 collars, 4 nuts and bolts.(2) 6 collars, 2 nuts and bolts.Selection guideMast configuration without guying kit for a wind.Nominal height ESEAT mast type Extension mast typemBelow 140 km/h and more than 6 km away from the sea4.5 (b + d) b) MAT3002 d) RAL35025.2 (c + d) c) MAT3503 d) RAL35026.2 (c + e) c) MAT3503 e) RAL35037.2 (c + d + f) c) MAT3503 d) RAL3502 + f) RAL4202Up to 170 km/h or close to sea side4.5 (b + d) b) MAT3502 d) RAL35025.2 (c + d) c) MAT3503 d) RAL35026.5 (b + d + f) b) MAT3002 d) RAL3502 + f) RAL42027.2 (c + d + f) c) MAT3502 d) RAL3502 + f) RAL4202Lightning air terminal rangeMasts and extension masts32 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsSelf carrying pylons– material: hot galvanized steel– these pylons are made of a welded steel lattice with a triangular cross-section. Each element is 3 m inlength, except the ground anchoring section (about 1 m)– delivered complete with stainless steel hardware and Ø 35 mm mast head (to receive OPR mast)– the concrete anchorage blocks should be made with concrete in a proportion of 350 kg/m3 and calculatedfor a good ground.Height (1) Self-supportingmZone I136 km/hZone II149 km/hZone III167 km/hZone IV183 km/h9 2CTHCHPA0109 2CTHCHPA0209 2CTHCHPA0309 2CTHCHPA040912 2CTHCHPA0112 2CTHCHPA0212 2CTHCHPA0312 2CTHCHPA041215 2CTHCHPA0115 2CTHCHPA0215 2CTHCHPA0315 2CTHCHPA041518 2CTHCHPA0118 2CTHCHPA0218 2CTHCHPA0318 2CTHCHPA0418(1) Other sizes on request - Technical specifications available - For wind zone V (210 km/h) please consult us.Guyed pylons– material: hot galvanized steel– these pylons are made of a welded steel lattice with a triangular cross-section (centerline distance175 mm) supplied in lengths of 3 or 6 m– use: lightning air terminal supports for flat roofs– fibre glass guying (1 set per section)– delivered complete with base and neoprene tile, Ø 35 mm mast head, fibre glass and accessories (anchoringclips and stay tighteners) for guying, with bolted anchoring.Height (2) Guyedm Zones I and II9 2CTHCHPH090012 2CTHCHPH120015 2CTHCHPH150018 2CTHCHPH1800(2) Other sizes on request - Technical specifications available - For wind zone V (210 km/h) please consult us.Guying kit for lightning rod with mastComplete kit with:– 25 m of fibre glass cable to be ordered separately, 6 anchoring clips, 3 stay tighteners, 3 ring fasteners, 1 3-directional clamp and 1 base (2CTHCHPP4523).Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kgGuying kit FHF0001 2CTH050022R0000 3660308521613 12.00025 m fibre glass cable 5.6 mm FDV5625 2CTH050023Z0000 3660308521620 –OBSTA obstruction lightsThe OBSTA HISTI is an obstruction light for hazard to low-flying aircraft for airport, building, broadcasttransmitting towers, chimneys, bridges and transmission lines.This lamp based on cold neon discharge principle offers high reliability, robustness in hostile environments(EMC, climatic...), proven long life (more than 25 000 hours) on all kinds of obstacle like transmission lines, TV towers and exposure in electromagnetic fields and high temperature.One unique model will adjust itself to the main supply voltages, continuously from 100 V to 240 Vrms, 50/60 Hz.Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)OBSTA HI STI 100 V A 240 V HCO0071 2CTHCHCO0071 – 5OBSTA photoelectric cell 230 V HCO0752 2CTHCHCO0752 – 0.4For another voltage, please contact us.OBSTA low intensity LEDThe NAVILITE is based on LED technology in compliance with ICAO low intensity type recently applied.These lights are devoted to the night marking of all kinds of obstacles with a DC power supply.Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)OBSTA Navilite LED 48VDC HCHCO0900 2CTHCHCO0900 – 0.4For another voltage, please contact us.Lightning air terminal rangePylonsOPRguying ringbaseberglass guystaytighteneranchormasts21ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 33Wall fixing accessoriesBolted brackets– use: bolted fixing for an offset mast on a vertical wall (M 10)– bolt hole diameter: Ø 11 mm– distance between bolt holes: 120 mm.Offset Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)mm kg290 Long bolted bracket PBL0290 2CTH050016R0000 3660308521552 1 1.900125 Short bolted bracket PBC0125 2CTH050015R0000 3660308521545 1 1.400Use 3 brackets for installation of 5 m (and 6 m) consisting of a 2 m (or 3 m) lightning rod with additional 3 m mast, with a wind lessthan 136 km/h if 2 is not sufficient.Offset bracket– use: fixing of a mast offset from a vertical section– offset distance: max. 190 mm.190 Offset bracket for vertical support PDV0190 2CTH050018R0000 3660308521576 1 1.800Pylons, ladders, guardrail or fences fixing accessoriesOffset clamps– use: fixing of a mast offset from a vertical wall or a horizontal section by means of Ø 10 mm bolts.Use Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgHorizontal support 1 - Clamp for horizontal support CDH5001 2CTH050013R0000 3660308521521 1 1.700Vertical support 2 - Clamp for vertical support CDV5001 2CTH050014R0000 3660308521538 1 1.700Version in 3 brackets for installation of 5 m (and 6 m) consisting of a 2 m (or 3 m) lightning rod with additional 3 m mast, with a windless than 136 km/h.Steel hoopsMasonry chimney (rectangular/square section)– use: fixing of a mast on a chimney, a concrete mast, etc. (rectangular/square section).Clamping Ø Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)mm kgfrom 30 to 60 Bracket square section CCC6001 2CTH050020R0000 3660308521590 1 2.000– Coil of steel hoop (25 m) HFC4002 2CTHCHFC4002 3660308523440 1 5.000Metal cylindrical chimney– use: fixing of a mast on a chimney, round section).250 Bracket cylindrical section CCT5001 2CTH050021R0000 3660308521606 1 1.140– Stainless steel tape 20 x 0.7 (50 m) HFP2650 2CTHCHFP2650 3660308523471 1 4.000– Tightening clips 200 mm HCP2651 2CTH0HCP2651 3660308524485 5 0.050Wide offset bracket– use: bolted fixing of a mast offset from a vertical wall (M 10)– material: galvanized steel– offset distance: 45 cm– distance between bolt holes: 54 cm– minimum distance between brackets: 50 cm to fix a set of masts for a building with a height of 5 m; 1 mfor higher buildings– delivered complete with hardware and back plate.Clamping Ø Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)mm kgfrom 30 to 60 Wide offset bracket HPS0010 2CTH0HPS0010 3660308522658 1 10.500Lightning air terminal rangeLateral fixations1234 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsIndustrial chimney offset and bracketOffset for industrial chimney stacksDescription– material: stainless steel– delivered complete with stainless steel connecting clamp for conductor– to offset a solitary air terminal (without extension mast) by 1 m from a chimney stack– assembly: lightning air terminal bolts into right hand tube + offset rod fitted to chimney stack by twobrackets earth with two Ø 8 mm drill holes.Ordering detailsOffset Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)m kg1 Offset for industrial chimney stacks HRI3501 2CTH0HRI3501 3660308522672 1 5.200Industrial chimney bracketDescription– use: to offset a single rod air terminal (1 or 2 m) for a chimney stack– material: stainless steel– delivered complete with stainless kit screw kit.Ordering detailsDescription Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgStainless steel chimney bracket HPS2630 2CTH0HPS2630 3660308522665 1 1.300Lightning air terminal rangeLateral fixationsABB OPR lightning protection systems | 35Ballasted tripods– use: to fit a mast (height 5 m) on flat roof (max. gradient 5 %) without drilling or sticking on the roof– material: galvanized steel.Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kgBallasted tripod - Wind up to 149 km/h TLB5002 2CTHCTLB5002 3660308524430 120.00Ballasted tripod - Wind up to 170 km/h TLB5004 2CTHCTLB5004 3660308524447 200.00Ballasted tripod - Wind up to 186 km/h TLB5005 2CTHCTLB5005 – 350.00For wind speed above 186 km/h a guying kit must be used.Supporting plates / tripods– use: to fix lightning conductors or elevation masts to flat roofs– material: galvanized steel– bolt hole diameters: 12 mm.Height Dimensionsof baseCenterlinedistanceDescription Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm kg330 200 x 200 160 x 160 1 - Plate for OPR (30 mm) or extension mast (35 mm)HPP4523 2CTH0HPP4523 3660308522610 5.500800 420 face 390 face 2 - Tripod for 30 to 50 mm tube TSH4525 2CTHCTSH4525 3660308524454 8.500H0HPP4523: to be used with a guying kitHCTSH4523: maximum height in wind zone 3 is 3 m.Carriage bolt holdfasts– use: to fix a single conductor rod (with no extension mast) in timber frameworks or bedding in masonry– material: galvanized steel– delivered complete with hardware.Effectivethread L.Effective L.after fixingHole Ø Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm m mm kg150 0.10 18 Short sup. HST2044 2CTH0HST2044 3660308522689 1.250Maximum height in wind zone 3 is 5 m (without guying kit)Important: not to omit the use of water deflecting cone to secure watertightness of the installation.Threaded bases– use: to fix a conductor to a metal framework. The conductor may be raised by a Ø 35 mm extension mast– material: galvanized steel– delivered complete with hardware.Maximum tightening L. Thread Ø Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm mm kg115 30 OPR mast base HEF2107 2CTH050033R0000 3660308522511 2.200150 36 Ø 35 mm extension mast base HEF2313 2CTH050034R0000 3660308522528 4.500Maximum height in wind zone 3 is 5 m (without guying kit)Important: not to omit the use of water deflecting cone to secure watertightness of the installation.Water deflecting cones– use: to ensure the watertightness in between the roof and the mast when fixing is used under roofing. Cutaccording to mast diameter (CRE)– material: rubber (CRE).Taper opening Height Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm mm kg6 to 50 55 Water deflecting cone CRE2700 2CTHCCRE2700 3660308523211 0.040Lightning air terminal rangeRoof fixing accessories1236 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsConductorsFlat conductors (1) (sold per meter)Material Section Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weightkg/mTin-plated copper 30 x 2 mm (strip) CPC2712 2CTH040003R0000 3660308523129 1 0.535Tin-plated copper 30 x 2 mm (25 m spool) CPC0025 2CTH040001R0000 3660308521866 25 0.535Tin-plated copper 30 x 2 mm (50 m spool) CPC0050 2CTH040002R0000 3660308521873 50 0.535Stainless steel 30 x 2 mm (strip) CPI2711 2CTHCCPI2711 3660308523150 1 0.474Galvanized steel 30 x 3.5 mm CPG3035 2CTHCCPG3035 3660308523143 1 0.870(1) Other dimensions on request.Round conductors (2)Material Section Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weightmm² kg/mØ 8 tin-plated copper 50 (50 m spool) CRC8000 2CTH040005R0000 3660308524676 50 0.450Ø 8 red copper 50 (50 m spool) CRC8001 2CTH040006R0000 3660308524683 50 0.450(2) Other dimensions on request.Shunts– electrolytically tin-plated flat flexible copper braid with welded eyelet at each end– other lengths and cross-sections available on request.Length Section Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)m mm² kg0.30 50 STP5030 2CTH0STP5030 3660308522870 1 0.1600.50 50 STP5050 2CTH0STP5050 3660308522887 1 0.2700.75 50 STP5075 2CTH0STP5075 3660308522894 1 0.4001.00 50 STP5100 2CTH0STP5100 3660308522900 1 0.600Coupling accessoriesCoupling strips– use: for coupling or crossing two conductors without riveting– the "standard" models accommodate 30 mm wide strips and rounds with Ø 6 and 8 mm– the "multiple" model also enables crossings of round conductors– the special strip model only accommodates flat strips.Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kg1 - Galvanized steel "standard" coupling BRP2680 2CTHCBRP2680 3660308523082 1 0.3002 - Copper "standard" coupling BRC2780 2CTH0BRC2780 3660308522047 1 0.2103 - Copper "multiple" coupling BRX3780 2CTH0BRX3780 3660308522115 1 0.3004 - Special copper coupling for strip BRH2779 2CTH0BRH2779 3660308522092 1 0.2005 - Special stainless steel coupling for strip BRI2779 2CTH0BRI2779 3660308522108 1 0.2046 - 3 x 2 and Ø 8 mm line coupling BRC2781 2CTH0BRC2781 3660308522054 1 0.202Connector for round conductorsDescription Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgLug with offset base for 8 mm conductors PRC8000 2CTHCPRC8000 3660308524300 1 0.050Lightning air terminal rangeConductors and coupling accessories1 24 356ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 37Roof fixing accessoriesConductor supporting studs– material: black synthetic exterior filled with cement (except 2CTHCHPV2771 to be filled up by your means)– eliminates the need to drill through waterproofing to attach the conductor– can be glued with neoprene glue– height: 8 cm.Use Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgØ 8 mm conductor30 x 2 mm conductorCable raceway1 - Hollow stud HPV2771 2CTHCHPV2771 3660308524072 1 0.160Ø 8 mm conductor30 x 2 mm conductor2 - Solid stud (clip) HPB2772 2CTHCHPB2772 3660308523945 1 1.290Ruberalu brackets for flat roof with waterproofing– material: bituminised aluminium– these brackets are attached by hot-melt gluing.Dimensions Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)mm kg150 x 40 HBR2717 2CTH0HBR2717 3660308522375 1 0.020Rolls also available.Clipped tile fasteners– material: tin-plated copper strip saddle 25 x 1 mm– Stainless steel clips: used for fixing 30 x 2 mm strips to all types of slated or unbedded roofing tiles (1)– PVC clips: used for round conductors, exists in red copper colour or grey (2).For flat conductors1 - Tile fastener with stainless steel clip for flat conductor HAA2673 2CTH0HAA2673 3660308522238 1 0.043For round conductors2 - Tile fastener with grey PVC clips for round conductor HAR2745 2CTH0HAR2745 3660308522283 1 0.0452 - Tile fastener with red copper colour PVC clips for round conductor HAR2746 2CTH0HAR2746 3660308522290 1 0.045Wall fixing accessories for flat conductorsMasonry wall hooks– fixing: on masonry by hookds into lead dowels– for flat strip.Material Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgGalvanized steel Hook 30 mm CMA3020 2CTH050032Z0000 3660308521859 20 0.014Lead Dowel CPB3020 2CTH050030Z0000 3660308521835 20 0.003Screw fastener– for 30 mm wide strip: supplied with wood screw– material: brass.Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgMasonry screw fastener HCL2642 2CTH0HCL2642 3660308522443 1 0.020Metal cladding wallsStainless steel clips– material: stainless steel– for fixing a flat strip conductor– fixed with pop rivets or screws (Ø 4 mm) not supplied.1 - Stainless steel clips for 30 x 2 CIP3020 2CTH050031Z0000 3660308521842 20 0.0022 - Aluminium waterproof pop rivets Ø 4 HRP0100 2CTH050011Z0000 3660308521507 100 0.0032 - Aluminium waterproof rivets Ø 4 HRP0500 2CTH050012Z0000 3660308521514 500 0.0033 - Stainless steel clip for waterproof cladding for 30 x 2 HCB4240 2CTH0HCB4240 3660308522399 1 0.002Lightning air terminal rangeConductor fasteners123122138 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsWaterproof fixing on cladding– fixing: on cladding and roofs of galvanized or thermo-lacquered steel plate (code: 2CTH0FDT0045)– fixing: on tiles or fibro-cement (code: 2CTH0FDT0046)– fixed entirely from outside and guaranteeing perfect watertightness. May be equipped with a bakeliteinsulator– drill hole Ø 10 mm.Use Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgMetal cladding dowel L. 15 mm FDT0045 2CTH0FDT0045 3660308522191 1 0.030Tiles or cement fibre dowel L. 25 mm FDT0046 2CTH0FDT0046 3660308522207 1 0.040Insulating supports– fixing: strip on timber framework or thatch– material: bakelite– supplied complete with wood screws– 2CTH0HIS6000 for flat conductors, 2CTH0HAR... for round conductors.Insulator height H Colour Thread Ø Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)mm mm kg35 black 6 HIS6000 2CTH0HIS6000 3660308522542 1 0.050– grey 8 HAR2645 2CTH0HAR2645 – 1 0.050– copper 8 HAR2646 2CTH0HAR2646 3660308522276 1 0.050Wall fixing accessories for round conductorsPVC fixtures– fixing: on 30 mm wide strip with isolation from supporting material (screw hole spacing 15 mm– colour: grey or copper.Use Colour Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgMasonry Grey Grey PVC fixture HAR2445 2CTHCHAR2445 3660308523341 1 0.007Masonry Grey Grey PVC fixture with screw kit HAR2845 2CTH0HAR2845 3660308522313 1 0.016Masonry Copper Copper PVC fixture with screw kit HAR2846 2CTH0HAR2846 3660308522320 1 0.016Masonry fixture– for round conductor: supplied with wood screw– material: copper.Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgCopper fixing accessory for Ø 8 mm SCP3000 2CTHCSCP3000 3660308524409 1 0.046Pylon or ladder fixing accessories for round or flat conductorStainless steel collars– use: to clamp conductors on tube supports– material: stainless steel.Tightening Ø Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)mm kg30 to 50 HCI2419 2CTH050001Z0000 – 20 0.01540 to 70 HCI2420 2CTH050003Z0000 – 20 0.02060 to 100 HCI2421 2CTHCHCI2421 – 1 0.025Lightning air terminal rangeConductor fastenersABB OPR lightning protection systems | 39Test joint– enables the disconnection of the conductors for insulation and earthing measurements– material: die-cast brass– no need to drill the conductors– accommodate Ø 6 and 8 mm round conductors and 30 x 2 or 30 x 3 mm flat conductors– guarantee perfect conductivity, low impedance– fixed by brackets with wood or metal screws, etc.– in accordance with NF C 17-102 standard.Description Dimensions Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm kgTest joint 70 x 50 x 20 JCH2708 2CTH0JCH2708 3660308522719 0.390Note: Down conductors have to overlap on the whole height of the test joint.Protecting flats and tubes– 2 m galvanized steel flats or tubes to protect the down conductors against mechanical impact– generally placed between the test joint and the ground– delivered complete with 3 clamps (bracket, wood screw).Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kgProtecting flat for strip (delivered by 2) TPH2705 2CTH0TPH2705 3660308522917 1.000Protecting tube for round conductor (delivered by 2) TPH2768 2CTH0TPH2768 3660308522924 1.000Inspection earth pit– used to house the test joint at ground level, the earth rod connections or earth interconnections– the 2CTH0RVH3073 and 2CTH0RVH3074 models are equipped with a copper bar enabling the interconnectionof 3 conductors or 2 conductors and a test joint.Description Dimensions Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm kg1 - Cast iron Ø ext. 190 RVH3071 2CTH0RVH3071 3660308522825 2.4002 - Yellow polyester concrete 350 x 250 RVH3072 2CTH0RVH3072 3660308522832 10.0003 - Yellow polyester concrete with earth bar 350 x 250 RVH3073 2CTH0RVH3073 3660308522849 10.0004 - Grey PVC with earth bar 300 x 300 RVH3074 2CTH0RVH3074 3660308522856 3.300Interconnection box for equipotential bonding– these boxes are fixed to the bottom of the down conductor and enable easy, accessible interconnectionand disconnection of the lightning earth termination system and the building's earth loop– they are made of a galvanized steel cover over a copper bar mounted on two insulators enabling the connectionof 2 conductors– delivered complete with wood screw brackets and earth identification labels.Description Dimensions Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm kgInterconnection box 150 x 65 x 65 BLH2707 2CTH0BLH2707 3660308522009 0.550Warning noticeDescription Dimensions Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm kgWarning notice 264 x 150 PSH2009 2CTH0PSH2009 3660308522757 0.010Lightning air terminal rangeEarth coupling accessories124340 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsOverviewEach down conductor in a lightning protection system must beconnected to an earth termination system designed to carryaway the lightning current. The earth termination system mustfulfil three indispensable conditions:– the earth termination resistance valueFrench and other international standards, as well as thetechnical requirements of a number of authorities stipulatean earth termination resistance value of less than 10 ohms.This value should be measured on the earth connectionisolated from any other conductive component.If the resistance value of 10 ohms cannot be achieved, theearth termination is nonetheless considered compliant if itis made up of at least 100 m of conductors or electrodes, each section measuring no more than 20 m (for level of protection2, 3 and 4) and 160 m (8 x 20 m) for level 1.– equipotential bondingStandards require the equipotential bonding of lightningearth termination system with the existing earthing systems.– inspection earth pitThe connection parts between lightning earth systemand electrical system test joint can be accessed by aninspection pit.General earth systemDuck's foot earth termination systemThe minimum earth termination system is made up of 25 m of30 x 2 mm tin-plated copper strip, split into 3 strands buried in3 trenches at a depth of 60 to 80 cm dug in a fan shape like aduck's foot: one end of the longest strand is connected to thetest joint, the two other strands being linked to a specialconnection known as a duck's foot connector.Standard list of materialDescription Type Order code EAN code Nb ofpcs or mDuck's foot connector RPO2840 2CTH0RPO2840 3660308522818 1 pcFlat conductor CPC2712 2CTH040003R0000 3660308523129 25 mNote: The earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning grid.Lightning air terminal rangeEarthing systemprotectionat30 x 2 mm strip3 m1 m from wall depth60 to 80 cm4 mstainlesssteel clampNB: the earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning gridDUCK'S FOOT SYSTEMFOR A MESHED CAGEduck'sfootconnectorprotectionat30 x 2 mm strip2 m1 m from wall depth60 to 80 cmstainless steelclampNB: the earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning grid 2 m rodearth rod clampROD TRIANGLE EARTHTERMINATION SYSTEM DUCK'S FOOT EARTH TERMINATIONSYSTEM WITH EARTH RODSprotectionat30 x 2 mm strip8 to 12 mdepth 6 to 9 m 60 to 80 cmduck'sfootconnectorstainlesssteel clampNB: the earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning gridrodearth rodclamp1 m from wallRod triangle earth termination systemWhen the site topography does not lend itself to the installationof a duck's foot as described above, an earth terminationsystem can be developed using at least 3 copper earth rodseach with a minimum length of 2 m, buried vertically in theground: the rods should be spaced at intervals of about 2 m andat a mandatory distance of 1 m to 1.5 m from the foundations.Standard list of materialRod systemDescription Type Order code EAN code Nb ofpcs or mDuck's foot connector RPO2840 2CTH0RPO2840 3660308522818 1 pcFlat conductor CPC2712 2CTH040003R0000 3660308523129 10 mSelf-extensible earth rod PVB2010 2CTHCPVB2010 3660308524379 6 pcsManual snap tool Ø 20 BMA0020 2CTH0BMA0020 3660308522030 1 pcEarth rod clamp CRH4020 2CTH0CRH4020 3660308522160 3 pcsNote: The earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning grid.Duck's foot earth termination system with earth rodsIf the soil type is not altogether suitable for a duck's foot connector, a combination of duck's foot and earth rods will significantlyenhance protection. In this case, the end of each duck'sfoot connector strand is connected to an earth rod.Standard list of materialRod systemDescription Type Order code EAN code Nb ofpcs or mDuck's foot connector RPO2840 2CTH0RPO2840 3660308522818 1 pcFlat conductor CPC2712 2CTH040003R0000 3660308523129 25 mStandard copper-bondrod, 2 mPCS1920 2CTHCPCS1920 3660308524249 3 pcsManual snap tool Ø 20 BMA0020 2CTH0BMA0020 3660308522030 1 pcEarth rod clamp CRH4020 2CTH0CRH4020 3660308522160 3 pcsNote: The earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning grid.These here before configurations cannot guarantee an earthresistance of 10 Ω in case of bad soil resistivity. The valuesobtained by these configurations depends of the soil resistivity.ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 41Earth rods– the use of a reusable treated steel snap tool is compulsory to protect the rod head when driving inDescription Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kg1 - Galvanized steel rod Ø 20 - L. 1 m PVB2010 2CTHCPVB2010 3660308524379 2.4002 - Standard copper-bond earth rod Ø 19 - L. 2.10 m PCS1920 2CTHCPCS1920 3660308524249 3.9403 - Manual snap tool Ø 20 BMA0020 2CTH0BMA0020 3660308522030 0.3004 - Earth rod clamp for 30 x 2 strip CRH4020 2CTH0CRH4020 3660308522160 0.150(1) 2CTHCPVB2010: high resistance steel tube hot galvanized.(2) 2CTHCPCS1920: high corrosion resistance due to a 250 µ thickness of electrolytically plated copper.(3) 2CTH0BMA0020: manual snap tool - one for 3 rods to be hammered in.Duck foot connectors– zinc-plated, die-cast brass parts enabling the connection of three of four strands of tin-plated copper30 x 2 mm conductor strip– variable strand angles– perfect electrical conductivity and strong tightening.Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kgDuck foot connector Ø 85 - thickness 30 mm RPO2840 2CTH0RPO2840 3660308522818 0.800Earth grids– earth grids are made of solid red copper with a mesh size of 115 x 40 mm.Thickness Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm kg3 Earth grid 0.66 x 0.92 m (4) GMD6692 2CTHCGMD6692 3660308523303 3.8003 Earth grid 1.00 x 2.00 m (5) GMD1020 2CTHCGMD1020 3660308523297 8.400(4) Equivalent to 18 m of Ø 8 mm round conductor.(5) Equivalent to 54 m of Ø 8 mm round conductor.Digital earth test set– battery-powered and watertight the 2CTHCACA6460 is a device that is easy to use and has been designedfor operation in the field– on all installations requiring the qualification of electrical or lightning earth termination system, using traditionalearth rod methods, the 2CTHCACA6460 measures the earth resistance and resistivity of the soil.Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kg1 - Digital earth and resistivity test set ACA6460 2CTHCACA6460 3660308523044 1.300Housing for test set with accessories (4 leads + 4 rods) ACA2025 2CTHCACA2025 3660308523006 6.000Lightning air terminal rangeEarthing system1 234142 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsABB OPR lightning protection systems | 43Antenna mast arrester– use: temporary grounding of an antenna mast in the event of lightning impact directly on the antenna– in normal circumstances, the arrester insulates the antenna from the earth, but also from the LightningProtection System in the event of a lightning strike on the LPS– the arrester can also be used to earth metallic structures such as pylons, motor chassis, roof equipment, etc.– characteristics:- dynamic excitation < 1800 V- static excitation voltage < 1100 V- nominal discharge current: 25 kA- dimensions: 280 x 45 x 30 mm- delivered complete with clamp for mast attachment.Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kgAntenna mast arrester EAH4005 2CTH0EAH4005 3660308522177 0.400Lightning stroke counter– this counter, which is connected in series to a lightning down conductor, records lightning current– this counter (1) uses the current induced in a secondary circuit to activate an electromechanical counter. Ithas been tested in High Voltage laboratories and in situ– Counter (1 and 2) equipped with an external dry contact when lightning current flow through it.Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kg1 - Lightning stroke counter with a flat conductor connection CCF2005 2CTH060001R0000 3660308521279 0.4102 - Lightning stroke counter and recorder CIF2006 2CTH0CIF2006 3660308522146 0.3403 - Lightning stroke LCD counter fit directly on round or flat conductor CCF2006 2CTH060002R0000 3660308524744 0.1OPR test kitOPR lightning air terminal testing kit– the testing kit needs a contact with the OPR tip in one hand, and the bottom of the pole or the downconductor in the other hand– it tests the OPR electronics by activating the high-voltage internal circuit of the OPR.Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kg4 - ESE pole test PMH8000 2CTH080004R0000 3660308522740 6.0005 - ESE test system VDT0001 2CTH080001R0000 3660308521309 1.900Lightning air terminal rangeEquipotential bonding2415344 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsMeshed conductorsTypical installationFlat or round conductorconnectionp.36Hooksp.37Test couplingp.39Equipotential boxp.39Lightning stroke counter(every 4 down conductor)p.43Conductorsupporting studp.37Fixture accessoriesfor air terminalsp.45 Air terminalp.45Ruberalu bracketsp.37Protecting flatp.39Earth rods with clampsp.41Earth rod clampp.41Type 1 surge protective devicehighly recommendedABB OPR lightning protection systems | 45Air terminalMeshed cage air terminals are designed for easy, rapid installation on a wide range of structures.They are made up of:– a cylindrical (Ø 18 mm) bright nickel-plated copper cylinder tapered at the top and with a threaded lowersection– a bright tapped nickel-plated brass base M 10 for the connection and intersection of flat or round conductors.They are adaptable to all fixtures shown below.Length Material Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)m kg0.50 Nickel copper HPC5000 2CTH0HPC5000 3660308522603 1.500Fixture accessories for air terminalsVertical mounting– material: tin-plated or galvanized steel.Length Hole Ø Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)cm mm kg10 16 1 - To bed SSH5001 2CTHCSSH5001 – 0.12016 8 2 - To bold STH5002 2CTHCSTH5002 3660308524423 0.07013 10 3 - S/Steel threaded base EFH5003 2CTH0EFH5003 3660308522184 0.100Supporting plates– material: stainless steel– fixing: 2x Ø 10 mm bolt holes (centerline distance 93 mm).Length x width Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm kg50 x 50 1 - Flat plate PM PSH5002 2CTH0PSH5002 3660308522795 0.100120 x 50 Flat plate GM PSH5004 2CTH0PSH5004 3660308522801 0.200120 x 50 2 - Swivelling plate SOH5006 2CTH0SOH5006 3660308522863 0.460250 x 120 3 - Roof ridge plate PFH5000 2CTH0PFH5000 3660308522733 0.500Offset plate– material: galvanized steel– fixing: by M8 screw.Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kg15 cm offset plate PDH5015 2CTHCPDH5015 3660308524263 0.200Adaptor sleeve– use: to fix air terminals to existing supports (max. Ø 50 mm)– material: stainless steel.Max. tightening length L Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm kg100 HMA5010 2CTH0HMA5010 3660308522566 0.400Meshed conductorsAccessories1 233 1246 | ABB OPR lightning protection systems2CTB899800R7000 IMH3000 282CTB899800R7100 IMH6000 282CTB899800R7500 IMH4500 282CTH010001R0000 HPI3001 292CTH010002R0000 HPI3002 292CTH010004R0000 PTS3000 292CTH040001R0000 CPC0025 362CTH040002R0000 CPC0050 362CTH040003R0000 CPC2712 362CTH040005R0000 CRC8000 362CTH040006R0000 CRC8001 362CTH050001Z0000 HCI2419 382CTH050003Z0000 HCI2420 382CTH050011Z0000 HRP0100 372CTH050012Z0000 HRP0500 372CTH050013R0000 CDH5001 332CTH050014R0000 CDV5001 332CTH050015R0000 PBC0125 332CTH050016R0000 PBL0290 332CTH050018R0000 PDV0190 332CTH050020R0000 CCC6001 332CTH050021R0000 CCT5001 332CTH050022R0000 FHF0001 322CTH050023Z0000 FDV5625 322CTH050026R0000 KFR3542 312CTH050027R0000 KFP0035 312CTH050028R0000 KFR0050 312CTH050030Z0000 CPB3020 372CTH050031Z0000 CIP3020 372CTH050032Z0000 CMA3020 372CTH050033R0000 HEF2107 352CTH050034R0000 HEF2313 352CTH060001R0000 CCF2005 432CTH060002R0000 CCF2006 432CTH070001R0000 MAT3001 312CTH070002R0000 MAT3002 312CTH070005R0000 RAL3502 312CTH070006R0000 RAL3503 312CTH070007R0000 RAL4202 312CTH070008R0000 RAL4203 312CTH070009R0000 RAL5002 312CTH070010R0000 RAL5003 312CTH070011R0000 MAT3503 312CTH080001R0000 VDT0001 432CTH080004R0000 PMH8000 432CTH0BLH2707 BLH2707 392CTH0BMA0020 BMA0020 402CTH0BRC2780 BRC2780 362CTH0BRC2781 BRC2781 362CTH0BRH2779 BRH2779 362CTH0BRI2779 BRI2779 362CTH0BRX3780 BRX3780 362CTH0CIF2006 CIF2006 432CTH0CRH4020 CRH4020 402CTH0EAH4005 EAH4005 432CTH0EFH5003 EFH5003 452CTH0FDT0045 FDT0045 382CTH0FDT0046 FDT0046 382CTH0HAA2673 HAA2673 372CTH0HAR2645 HAR2645 382CTH0HAR2646 HAR2646 382CTH0HAR2745 HAR2745 372CTH0HAR2746 HAR2746 372CTH0HAR2845 HAR2845 382CTH0HAR2846 HAR2846 382CTH0HBR2717 HBR2717 372CTH0HCB4240 HCB4240 372CTH0HCL2642 HCL2642 372CTH0HCP2651 HCP2651 332CTH0HIS6000 HIS6000 382CTH0HMA5010 HMA5010 452CTH0HPC5000 HPC5000 452CTH0HPP4523 HPP4523 352CTH0HPS0010 HPS0010 332CTH0HPS2630 HPS2630 342CTH0HRI3501 HRI3501 342CTH0HST2044 HST2044 352CTH0JCH2708 JCH2708 392CTH0PFH5000 PFH5000 452CTH0PSH2009 PSH2009 392CTH0PSH5002 PSH5002 452CTH0PSH5004 PSH5004 452CTH0RPO2840 RPO2840 402CTH0RVH3071 RVH3071 392CTH0RVH3072 RVH3072 392CTH0RVH3073 RVH3073 392CTH0RVH3074 RVH3074 392CTH0SOH5006 SOH5006 452CTH0STP5030 STP5030 362CTH0STP5050 STP5050 362CTH0STP5075 STP5075 362CTH0STP5100 STP5100 362CTH0TPH2705 TPH2705 392CTH0TPH2768 TPH2768 392CTHCACA2025 ACA2025 412CTHCACA6460 ACA6460 412CTHCBRP2680 BRP2680 362CTHCCPG3035 CPG3035 362CTHCCPI2711 CPI2711 362CTHCCRE2700 CRE2700 352CTHCGMD1020 GMD1020 412CTHCGMD6692 GMD6692 412CTHCHAR2445 HAR2445 382CTHCHCI2421 HCI2421 382CTHCHCO0071 HCO0071 322CTHCHCO0752 HCO0752 322CTHCHFC4002 HFC4002 332CTHCHFP2650 HFP2650 332CTHCHPA0109 322CTHCHPA0112 322CTHCHPA0115 322CTHCHPA0118 322CTHCHPA0209 322CTHCHPA0212 322CTHCHPA0215 322CTHCHPA0218 322CTHCHPA0309 322CTHCHPA0312 322CTHCHPA0315 322CTHCHPA0318 322CTHCHPA0409 322CTHCHPA0412 322CTHCHPA0415 322CTHCHPA0418 322CTHCHPB2772 HPB2772 372CTHCHPV2771 HPV2771 372CTHCPCS1920 PCS1920 402CTHCPDH5015 PDH5015 452CTHCPRC8000 PRC8000 362CTHCPVB2010 PVB2010 402CTHCSCP3000 SCP3000 382CTHCSSH5001 SSH5001 452CTHCSTH5002 STH5002 452CTHCTLB5002 TLB5002 352CTHCTLB5004 TLB5004 352CTHCTLB5005 TLB5005 352CTHCTSH4525 TSH4525 35IndexOrder code classificationOrder code Type Page Order code Type Page Order code Type PageABB OPR lightning protection systems | 47ACA2025 2CTHCACA2025 41ACA6460 2CTHCACA6460 41BLH2707 2CTH0BLH2707 39BMA0020 2CTH0BMA0020 40BRC2780 2CTH0BRC2780 36BRC2781 2CTH0BRC2781 36BRH2779 2CTH0BRH2779 36BRI2779 2CTH0BRI2779 36BRP2680 2CTHCBRP2680 36BRX3780 2CTH0BRX3780 36CCC6001 2CTH050020R0000 33CCF2005 2CTH060001R0000 43CCF2006 2CTH060002R0000 43CCT5001 2CTH050021R0000 33CDH5001 2CTH050013R0000 33CDV5001 2CTH050014R0000 33CIF2006 2CTH0CIF2006 43CIP3020 2CTH050031Z0000 37CMA3020 2CTH050032Z0000 37CPB3020 2CTH050030Z0000 37CPC0025 2CTH040001R0000 36CPC0050 2CTH040002R0000 36CPC2712 2CTH040003R0000 36CPG3035 2CTHCCPG3035 36CPI2711 2CTHCCPI2711 36CRC8000 2CTH040005R0000 36CRC8001 2CTH040006R0000 36CRE2700 2CTHCCRE2700 35CRH4020 2CTH0CRH4020 40EAH4005 2CTH0EAH4005 43EFH5003 2CTH0EFH5003 45FDT0045 2CTH0FDT0045 38FDT0046 2CTH0FDT0046 38FDV5625 2CTH050023Z0000 32FHF0001 2CTH050022R0000 32GMD1020 2CTHCGMD1020 41GMD6692 2CTHCGMD6692 41HAA2673 2CTH0HAA2673 37HAR2445 2CTHCHAR2445 38HAR2645 2CTH0HAR2645 38HAR2646 2CTH0HAR2646 38HAR2745 2CTH0HAR2745 37HAR2746 2CTH0HAR2746 37HAR2845 2CTH0HAR2845 38HAR2846 2CTH0HAR2846 38HBR2717 2CTH0HBR2717 37HCB4240 2CTH0HCB4240 37HCI2419 2CTH050001Z0000 38HCI2420 2CTH050003Z0000 38HCI2421 2CTHCHCI2421 38HCL2642 2CTH0HCL2642 37HCO0071 2CTHCHCO0071 32HCO0752 2CTHCHCO0752 32HCP2651 2CTH0HCP2651 33HEF2107 2CTH050033R0000 35HEF2313 2CTH050034R0000 35HFC4002 2CTHCHFC4002 33HFP2650 2CTHCHFP2650 33HIS6000 2CTH0HIS6000 38HMA5010 2CTH0HMA5010 45HPB2772 2CTHCHPB2772 37HPC5000 2CTH0HPC5000 45HPI3001 2CTH010001R0000 29HPI3002 2CTH010002R0000 29HPP4523 2CTH0HPP4523 35HPS0010 2CTH0HPS0010 33HPS2630 2CTH0HPS2630 34HPV2771 2CTHCHPV2771 37HRI3501 2CTH0HRI3501 34HRP0100 2CTH050011Z0000 37HRP0500 2CTH050012Z0000 37HST2044 2CTH0HST2044 35IMH3000 2CTB899800R7000 28IMH4500 2CTB899800R7500 28IMH6000 2CTB899800R7100 28JCH2708 2CTH0JCH2708 39KFP0035 2CTH050027R0000 31KFR0050 2CTH050028R0000 31KFR3542 2CTH050026R0000 31MAT3001 2CTH070001R0000 31MAT3002 2CTH070002R0000 31MAT3503 2CTH070011R0000 31PBC0125 2CTH050015R0000 33PBL0290 2CTH050016R0000 33PCS1920 2CTHCPCS1920 40PDH5015 2CTHCPDH5015 45PDV0190 2CTH050018R0000 33PFH5000 2CTH0PFH5000 45PMH8000 2CTH080004R0000 43PRC8000 2CTHCPRC8000 36PSH2009 2CTH0PSH2009 39PSH5002 2CTH0PSH5002 45PSH5004 2CTH0PSH5004 45PTS3000 2CTH010004R0000 29PVB2010 2CTHCPVB2010 40RAL3502 2CTH070005R0000 31RAL3503 2CTH070006R0000 31RAL4202 2CTH070007R0000 31RAL4203 2CTH070008R0000 31RAL5002 2CTH070009R0000 31RAL5003 2CTH070010R0000 31RPO2840 2CTH0RPO2840 40RVH3071 2CTH0RVH3071 39RVH3072 2CTH0RVH3072 39RVH3073 2CTH0RVH3073 39RVH3074 2CTH0RVH3074 39SCP3000 2CTHCSCP3000 38SOH5006 2CTH0SOH5006 45SSH5001 2CTHCSSH5001 45STH5002 2CTHCSTH5002 45STP5030 2CTH0STP5030 36STP5050 2CTH0STP5050 36STP5075 2CTH0STP5075 36STP5100 2CTH0STP5100 36TLB5002 2CTHCTLB5002 35TLB5004 2CTHCTLB5004 35TLB5005 2CTHCTLB5005 35TPH2705 2CTH0TPH2705 39TPH2768 2CTH0TPH2768 39TSH4525 2CTHCTSH4525 35VDT0001 2CTH080001R0000 432CTHCHPA0109 322CTHCHPA0112 322CTHCHPA0115 322CTHCHPA0118 322CTHCHPA0209 322CTHCHPA0212 322CTHCHPA0215 322CTHCHPA0218 322CTHCHPA0309 322CTHCHPA0312 322CTHCHPA0315 322CTHCHPA0318 322CTHCHPA0409 322CTHCHPA0412 322CTHCHPA0415 322CTHCHPA0418 32IndexType classificationType Order code Page Type Order code Page Type Order code Page48 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsBrochureLightning protection systemPulsar range1TXH000084B0204hélita® lightning protection systemsPulsar®range1TXH 000 084 B0202_Pulsar-Lightning-Protection_Version ABB.indd 1 25/11/2011 10:21:33Pararrayos hélita®Gama Pulsar®1TXH 000 084 B0702_Pararrayos-Pulsar_Version ABB.indd 1 04/10/2011 07:54:45BrochureLightning protection systemSpanish version1TXH000084B0703BrochureLightning protection systemEarly streamer emission air terminal1TXH000134B0205Marketing toolsCatalogs and brochuresMain catalogSystem pro M compact®Surge and lightning protection solutions1TXH000083C0203Main catalogueSystem pro M compact®Surge and lightning protection solutionsABB solutions for photovoltaicsProtection and other modular devicesBrochureABB solutions for photovoltaicsProtection and other modular devices2CDC002093B0201Technical catalogSystem pro M compact®DIN Rail components for low voltage installation2CSC400002D0212BrochureContact us1TXH 000 045 B0202 - Printed in France (V 12.2010 Lamazière)Autoprotected surge arrestersNew OVR PLUS range1TXH 000 045 B0202 - Autoprotected Surge Arresters.indd 7 10/12/2010 12:18:30BrochureLightning and overvoltage protectionWater treatment plants1TXH000444B0201BrochureAutoprotected surge arrestersNew OVR PLUS range1TXH000045B0203BrochureEarthing, lightning and overvoltage protectionWind turbines1TXH000215B0201ABB solutions for photovoltaicsProtection and other modular devicesEarthing, lightning and overvoltageprotectionWind turbines1TXH000215B0201_Wind turbines.indd 1 28/01/2013 15:23:10ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 49ABB FranceLightning Protection GroupDepending where we live, we are not all equal in front of the risk of lightning.For example there is more than 2 million lightning strokes per year on the French territory.They constitute a real risk for all humans and building structures.ABB as lightning protection specialist can offer you a range of lighting air terminals (simplerod or early streamer emission system OPR) in order to protect your facilities and personnel.All these products are developed by the ABB centre of excellence for lightning based inBagnères de Bigorre - France; they are tested in laboratory as well as in situ to recreatenatural conditions in the Pic du Midi (French Pyrenees).Lightning protection specialists?Absolutely.1TXH000247C0203 - Printed in France (06.2016 PDF)NoteWe reserve the right to make technical changes ormodify the contents of this document without priornotice.ABB does not accept any responsibility whatsoeverfor potential errors or possible lack of information inthis document.We reserve all rights in this document and in thesubject matter and illustrations contained therein.Any reproduction, disclosure to third parties orutilization of its contents – in whole or in parts – isforbidden without prior written consent of ABB.Copyright© 2016 ABB - All rights reservedContact usABB FranceElectrification Products DivisionPôle Foudre Soulé & Hélita1, avenue des Victimes du 11 juin 1944BP 303F-65203 Bagnères-de-Bigorre / FranceTel. : +33 (0)5 62 91 45 60Fax : +33 (0)5 62 91 45 62You can find the address of your local sales organisationon the ABB home 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OPR lightning protection systemsExternal lightning protectionMain catalogABB OPR lightning protection systems | 1Lightning mechanism and location 2Lightning protection technologies 3Lightning protection risk analysis 8Lightning protection technical study 9Procedure for measuring the Early Streamer Emission of an ESEair terminal according to standard NF C 17-102 appendix C 10Tests and research 12Lightning capture devices 14Down conductors 16Equipotential bonding 19Earth termination systems 21Inspection ESEAT maintenance 23Lightning air terminal rangeESEAT typical installation 24OPR, the high pulse voltage, initiation advance lightningair terminal 26Early Streamer Emission Air Terminal - ESEAT 27Single Rod Air Terminal - SRAT 29Extension masts 30Masts and extension masts 31Pylons 32Lateral fixations 33Roof fixing accessories 35Conductors and coupling accessories 36Conductor fasteners 37Earth coupling accessories 39Earthing system 40Equipotential bonding 43Meshed conductorsTypical installation 44Accessories 45Index 46OPR lightning protection systemsExternal lightning protection1TXH000247C0203 - Edition June 20162 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsLightning mechanism and locationStormsThe presence of unstable, moist and warm air masses givesrise to the formation of cumulonimbus storm clouds. This typeof cloud is very extensive, both horizontally (about 10 km indiameter) and vertically (up to 15 km). Its highly characteristicshape is often compared with the profile of an anvil of whichit displays the upper and lower horizontal planes. The existenceof extreme temperature gradients in a cumulonimbus(the temperature can drop to -65 °C at the top) generatesvery rapid ascending air currents, and results in the electricalenergisation of the water particles.In a typical storm cloud, the upper part, consisting of icecrystals, is normally positively charged, whilst the lower part, consisting of water droplets, is negatively charged. Consequently, the lower part of the cloud causes the developmentof electrically opposite charges (i.e. positive over the part ofthe ground nearby).Thus the cumulonimbus formation constitutes a sort of hugeplate /ground capacitor whose median distance can oftenreach 1 to 2 km. The atmospheric electrical field on theground, about 600 V/m in fine weather is reversed and canreach an absolute value of 15 to 20 kV/m when a grounddischarge is imminent (the lightning stroke).Before and during the appearance of the lightning stroke, discharges can be seen both within the cloud and betweenclouds.LightningAccording to the direction in which the electrical dischargedevelops (downward or upward), and the polarity of thecharges it develops (negative or positive), four classes ofcloud-to-ground lightning stroke can be distinguished. Inpractice, lightning strokes of the descending and negativetype are by far the most frequent: it is estimated that on plainsand in our temperate zones, they account for 96 % of allcloud / ground discharges.Mechanism of a lightning strokeIt is impossible to discern the individual phases of the lightningstroke by simple visual observation. This can only bedone with high-speed cameras. Most lightning bolts exhibitthe following phenomena: a leader leaves a point in thecloud and travels about 50 m at a very high speed of around50 000 km/s. A second leader then leaves the same point, follows the previous path at comparable speed, goes beyondthe final point of the first leader by an approximately identicaldistance, then disappears in turn.The process is repeated until the tip of the last leader reachesa point a few dozen metres, or even just a few metres aboveground level.The ascending jets then converge, producing a return strokefrom the ground towards the cloud (the upward streamer) duringwhich the electric current circulates: The convergence ofthese two phenomena produces the main discharge, whichmay be followed by a series of secondary discharges, passingunbroken along the channel ionised by the main discharge.In an average negative lightning stroke, the maximum currentis around 35 000 A.----------- - - -+++ ++++ + ++++++++++ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 3Lightning protection technologiesThe effects of lightningThe effects of lightning are those of a high-strength impulsecurrent that propagates initially in a gaseous environment (theatmosphere), and then in a solid, more or less conductivemedium (the ground):– visual effects (flash): caused by the Townsend avalanchemechanism– acoustic effects: caused by the propagation of a shockwave (rise in pressure) originating in the discharge path;this effect is perceptible up to a range of around 10 km– thermal effect: heat generated by the Joule effect in theionised channel– electrodynamic effects: these are the mechanical forces appliedto the conductors placed in a magnetic field createdby the high voltage circulation. They may result in deformations– electrochemical effects: these relatively minor effects areconveyed in the form of electrolytic decomposition throughthe application of Faraday's law– induction effects: in a variable electroma-gnetic field, everyconductor harnesses induced current– effects on a living being (human or animal): the passage ofa transient current of a certain r.m.s value is sufficient toincur risks of electrocution by heart attack or respiratoryfailure, together with the risk of burns.Lightning causes two major types of accidents:– accidents caused by a direct stroke when the lightningstrikes a building or a specific zone. This can cause considerabledamage, usually by fire. Protection against thisdanger is provided by lightning air terminal systems– accidents caused indirectly, as when the lightning strikes orcauses power surges in power cables or transmission links.Hence the need to protect with SPD the equipment at riskagainst the surge voltage and indirect currents generated.Protection against direct lightning strokeTo protect a structure against lightning strokes, a preferredimpact point is selected to protect the surrounding structureand conduct the flow of the electric current towards theground, with minimal impedance on the path followed bythe lightning. Four types of protection systems meet theserequirements.Protection systems StandardsEarly streamer emission air terminal - France: NF C 17-102 (September 2011 edition)- Argentina: IRAM 2426- Spain: UNE 21186- Macedonia: MKS N.B4 810- Portugal: NP 4426- Romania: I-20- Slovakia: STN 34 1391- Serbia: JUS N.B4.810Single rods air terminals IEC 62 305-3Meshed cages IEC 62 305-3Stretched wires IEC 62 305-34 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsLightning protection system with early streamer emissionair terminal (ESEAT)These state-of-the-art technologies have been designed onthe basis of a series of patents registered jointly by HELITAand the French National Scientific Research Centre (CNRS).The OPR is equipped with an electronic device which is highpulse voltage of known and controlled frequency and amplitudeenabling the early formation of the upward leader which isthen continuously propagated towards the downward leader.This anticipation in the upward leader formation is essentialwith regard to the last scientific knowledge on the lightningattachment that acknowledge the fact that this one resultsfrom an upward leader competition. Today the upward leadercompetition is internationally recognized thanks to high speedcameras pictures of this phenomenon of attachment and to itsdigital simulation.The OPR draws its energy from the ambient electrical fieldduring the storm. After capturing the lightning stroke, the OPRdirects it towards the down conductors to the ground where itis dissipated.Triggering time of an ESEAT1 2Lightning protection technologiesABB OPR lightning protection systems | 5The early streamer emission (ESE) conceptDuring a storm, when the propagation field conditions arefavourable, the OPR first generates an upward leader. Thisleader from the OPR tip propagates towards the downwardleader from the cloud at an average speed of 1 m/µs.The triggering time ∆T (µs) is defined as the mean gain atthe sparkover instant (continuous propagation of the upwardleader) obtained with an ESE air terminal compared with asingle rod air terminal exposed to the same conditions. ∆T ismeasured in the high-voltage laboratory, all tests are definedin appendix C of the French standard NF C 17-102.The triggering time instance gain ∆T is associated with atriggering time distance gain ∆L.∆L = v. ∆T, where:– ∆L (m): gain in lead distance or sparkover distance– v (m/µs): average speed of the downward tracer (1 m/µs).– ∆T (µs): gain in sparkover time of the upward leadermeasured in laboratory conditions.OPR air terminals are especially effective for the protectionof classified industrial sites, administrative or public buildings, historical monuments and open-air sites such as sportsgrounds.Lightning protection technologies6 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsLightning protection technologiesLightning protection system with meshed cagesThis principle consists of dividing up and more easily dissipating thelightning current by a network of conductors and earths.A meshed cage installation has multiple down conductors andconsequently provides very effective protection for buildingsthat house equipment sensitive to electromagnetic disturbance.This is because the lightning current is divided among the downconductors and the low current circulating in the mesh creates verylittle disturbance by induction.A meshed cage installation is made up of:– devices to capture the atmospheric discharges consisting ofstrike points– roof conductors– down conductors– protection measures against injuries to leaving being due totouch and step voltages (e.g. warning notice)– an equipotential bonding between each earth and the generalearthing circuit of the structure; this one must be disconnectable.Installation conditionsLightning Protection System with an ESEAT is made of:– an Early Streamer Emission Air Terminal and its extension mast– two down conductors, or in case of several ESEAT oneconductor per ESEAT– a connecting link or test joint for each down conductor toenabling the earth resistance to be verified– a protecting flat to protect the down conductor for the last twometers above ground level– an earth designed to dissipate the lightning currents at thebottom of each down conductor– an equipotential bonding between each earth and the generalearthing circuit of the structure; this one must be disconnectable– protection measures against injuries to leaving being due totouch and step voltages (e.g. warning notice).Lightning protection system with single rod air terminalBy protruding upwards from the building, they are likely to triggerthe release of ascending streamers and thus be selected asimpact points by lightning strokes occurring within the vicinity of thestructure.This type of protection is especially recommended for radio stationsand antenna masts when the area requiring protection is relativelysmall.A single rod air terminal protection is made up of:– a rod lightning air terminal and its extension mast– two down conductors– a connection link or test joint on each down conductor to checkthe conductor earth resistance– a protecting flat to protect the down conductor for the last twometers above ground level– an equipotential bonding between each earth and the generalearthing circuit of the structure; this one must be disconnectable– protection measures against injuries to leaving being due totouch and step voltages (eg warning notice).ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 7Lightning protection technologiesStretched wiresThis system is composed of one or several conductor wiresstretched above the protected installation. The protection area isdetermined by applying the electro-geometrical model.The conductors must be earthed at each end.A stretched wire installation requires a thorough preliminary studyto consider issues such as mechanical strength, the type ofinstallation, and the insulation distances.This technology is used to protect ammunition depots and as ageneral rule in circumstances where the site cannot be protectedby using a building structure to support the conductors thatconvey the lightning currents to the earth.Protection against indirect lightning stroke effectsWhen lightning strikes cables and transmission lines (H.F. coaxialcables, telecommunication lines, power cables), a voltage surgeis propagated and may reach equipment in the surrounding. Thisvoltage surge can also be generated by induction due to theelectromagnetic radiation of the lightning flash.This can have many consequences: premature componentageing, destruction of printed circuit boards or component plating, equipment failure, data loss, programs hanging, line damage, etc. This is why you need to use Surge Protective Devices toprotect equipment liable to be affected by lightning strikes.The use of Surge Protective Devices is highly recommendedwhen the building is fitted with an external lightning protection. Atype 1 SPD is highly recommended or even mandatory in somecountries. A good protection is made in step with one type 1 fittedin the MDB when the SDB are fitted with type 2 SPDs.Early Streamer EmissionAir TerminalMDBSDB - SubDistribution BoardSDBTelephone inputMainpower inputMDB - MainDistribution BoardTelecomboardEquipotential bonding of metal partsDuring a lightning stroke or even as a result of indirect effects, equipotential bonding defects can, by differences in potential, generate sparkover causing risk for human being or fire into thestructure.This is why it is an essential part of effective lightning protection toensure that a site's equipotential bonding is effective and in goodcondition.The necessity of an electrical insulation between the air terminationor the down-conductor and the structural metal parts, themetal installations and the internal systems can be achieved byproviding a separation distance "s" between the parts. 8 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsLightning protection risk analysisRisk analysisAll lightning protection standards recommend a preliminarylightning risk analysis in three parts:– lightning risk evaluation– protection level selection– protection device definition.We have developed a software based on the calculations ofthe IEC 62305-2 or NF C 17-102 (appendix A) in order to giveyou an easy and accurate solution regarding the risk analysisof any installation you wish to protect.Lightning flash density map (flashes per km² per year)Protection device definitionIt is advisable to take into account the technical and architecturalconstraints when configuring the different components ofthe protection device.To facilitate your preliminary studies, we will provide a questionnairein which the minimum required information can beentered, and a calculation software package. 2 < Ng < 8 8 < Ng < 18ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 9Lightning protection technical studyOPR Designer softwareABB is happy to provide you with a complete new software in the field of lightningprotection.With a very simple approach you can create your technical study in one click!You can either draw, import file (AutoCAD, pictures…)and from that point get a complete bill of material(air terminals, down conductors, fixing accessoriesand earthing system), the positioning of the lightningprotection system on the structure.The solution is given in a complete pdf file that includes :– protected areas– lightning air terminals positioning– complete bill of material– detailed bill of material per building– catalogue pages for each component– test certificatesThis software is so far available in English, French, Spanish, Russian and Lithuanian version.You may download OPR designer at the following address :http://www.web-emedia.com/opr/10 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsProcedure for measuring the Early Streamer Emission of an ESEair terminal according to standard NF C 17-102 appendix CThis test procedure consists in evaluating the triggering timeof an Early Streamer Emission (ESEAT) compared with thereference Single Rod Air Terminal (SRAT) in high voltage laboratoryconditions. 50 shocks are applied to the single rod air terminalin the first configuration, then to the early streamer emission airterminal in a second configuration.Simulation of natural conditionsNatural conditions can be simulated in a laboratory by superimposinga permanent field and an impulse field associated with a plate /ground platform area (H). The tested lightning air terminal is placedon the ground, beneath the centre of this platform. In the experiment, the height H = 6 m, and the lightning air terminal heighth = 1.5 m.Electrical conditionsThe permanent field caused by the charge distribution in thecloud is represented by a negative DC voltage of -20 to -25 kV/m(simulating a negative field of around -20 to -25 kV/m) applied tothe upper plate. The impulse field caused by the approach of thedownload leader is simulated with a negative polarity wave appliedto the platform. The rise time of the wave Tm is 650 µs. The wavegradient, at the significant points is around 109 V/m/s.Geometrical conditionsThe volume used for the experiment must be large enough to allowthe ascending discharge to develop freely:– distance d between upper platform and tip ≥ 1 m– upper plate diameter ≥ distance from upper plate to ground.The lightning air terminal are tested in sequence in strictly identicalgeometrical conditions same height, same location, same distancebetween tip and upper platform.ESE air terminals triggering time calculationGeneral conditions– number of shocks: around 50 per configuration (sufficient for anaccurate analysis of the leader /Leader transition)– interval between shocks: the same for each configuration equalto 2 min.Recording– triggering time (TB): obtained directly by reading the data fromthe diagnostic equipment. This data is not characteristic, butit does enable a simple reading to establish whether or not ashock can yield a valid result– light emitted by the leader at the lightning air terminal tip (photomultipliers):this data provides a very accurate detection of theleader continuous propagation instant– pre-discharge current (coaxial shunt): the resulting curves confirmthe previous diagnostic data– space-time development of the discharge (image converter): theimage converter pictures provide a further means of analysingthe results.SRATLABORATORY EARTHdhHPLATEdhHESEATLABORATORY EARTHPLATEIREQ Laboratory (Canada - 2000)Other recordings and measurements– short-circuit current (coaxial shunt)– time/voltage characteristics for several shocks– rod to plate distance before and after each configuration– climatic parameters must be maintain for the 2 configurations :- pressure ±2 %- temperature ±10 %- relative humidity ±20 %.Triggering picture of a SRAT witha rotative high speed camera.Triggering picture of an ESEAT witha rotative high speed camera.ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 11Procedure for measuring the Early Streamer Emission of an ESEair terminal according to standard NF C 17-102 appendix CProcedure for measuring the Early Streamer Emission of an ESEair terminal according to standard NF C 17-102 appendix CT TESEATTSRAT t(µs)EESEATESRATEM expreference wavemeasuring waveDetermination of the early streamer emission of the ESEATThe triggering time instants, or continuous propagationinstants of the upward leader are obtained by analysing thediagnostic data described above. The mean is then calculatedfor each lightning air terminal tested, and the differencebetween the mean values is the ESE lightning air terminaltriggering time.T= TSRAT - TESEATABB lightning protection group has unique know-how andexperience in this field.Since 1996, we have generated more than 40 000 sparksusing this test procedure in the following high voltagelaboratories:– SIAME Laboratory - PAU UNIVERSITY (France)– Bazet VHV Laboratory - SEDIVER (France)– Volta HV Laboratory - MERLIN GERIN (France)– L.G.E.Les Renardières - ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE– Bagnères de Bigorre HV Laboratory - LEHTM (France)– Varennes IREQ Laboratory (Canada)– Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute - KERI (Korea)– WHVRI - Wuhan High Voltage Research Institute (China)– Beijing testing center surge protective devices (China).12 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsTests and researchObjectivesABB Lightning Protection Group has been investing for manyyears in research into lightning air terminal protection devices, and is constantly striving to enhance the performance of itsproducts.ABB's ongoing in situ research in France and abroad has threemain objectives:– to enhance the protection models– to measure in situ the effectiveness of ESEAT, alreadyevaluated in laboratory conditions– to qualify the dimensioning of the equipment in real-lifelightning strike conditions.Tests under Laboratory conditionsSince 2003 our factory located in Bagnères de Bigorre(France) has a high tech laboratory allowing to test our SurgeProtective Devices in 10/350 µs and 8/20 µs wave shapes aswell as our direct lightning range with lightning currents up to100 kA.We also test our lighting rods in a dedicated high voltagelaboratory close to our factory allowing normative tests thanksto an up to 3 MV generator.Tests in situsAn experimental site devoted to the study of direct lightningimpacts to a lightning protection system has been selected atthe top of the "Pic du Midi" in the French Pyrenées mountainsfor its high lightning impact density (30 days of storm peryear).The "Pic du Midi", famous astronomical observatory, offersan unique scientific environment for lightning observations incollaboration with astronomers.Purpose of the experiments:– to confirm the triggering time of ESEAT compared to singlerod air terminals– to direct the flow of the lightning currents captured by thelightning air terminal to low-voltage surge arresters via anappropriate earthing network– to test the resistance of the equipment to lightning shocksand climatological constraints.ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 13In situ tests at the Pic du Midi de BigorreThis unique location enables us to test our products in highlysevere conditions (high winds, extremely low temperatures) asthese tests are running at an altitude of 2880 m.Such tests give us the opportunity to complete ourunderstanding on lightning phenomenon. For this purpose, weare using high speed cameras, lightning current recorders aswell as field and light recorders.Another in situ test runs at the Taoulet station 2300 m to verifythat theoretical values announced are also validated in realconditions.A constant partnership with scientists permits to follow thesein situs sites and lead to fundamental research on lighting. Asan application example, a software that determines the weakpoints of a structure has been developed.Natural lightning experimental site– Located in the Hautes Pyrénées department of France– Keraunic level: 30 days of storms per annum.Experimental artificial lightning triggering sitesBecause lightning is a randomly occurring naturalphenomenon, artificial triggering techniques have beendeveloped to speed up the research process.When lightning conditions are prevalent the triggeringtechnique consists in sending a rocket with a trailing wire inthe direction of the storm clouds to cause a lightning strike atthe experimental site.The wire may comprise an insulating section in order togenerate the largest possible number of lightning strikes forexperimental purposes.– Site located at Privat d'Allier in Auvergne, FranceKeraunic level: 30Purpose of the experiments:- to qualify the lightning strike counters and- low-voltage arresters in situ- to qualify the resistance of the equipment to- triggered lightning strikes.– Site located at Camp Blanding (Florida/USA)Keraunic level: 80Purpose of the experiments:- to confirm the triggering time gain of the ESE air terminalscompared with single rod air terminals- to collect data with a view to improving the protectionmodels.Tests and research14 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsLightning capture devicesLightning air terminalsEarly Streamer Emission Air Terminals (ESEAT) or SingleRod Air Terminals (SRAT).As a general rule, the lightning air terminal should culminate atleast two metres above the highest points of the building(s) tobe protected.Its location should therefore be determined relative to buildingsuperstructures: chimneys, machine and equipment rooms, flagpoles, pylons or aerials. Ideally, these vulnerable pointsshould be selected for lightning air terminal installation.The lightning air terminal may be raised by an extension mast.Our stainless steel interlocking extension masts can reachan overall height of 8.50 or 11 m including the lightning airterminal height. They have been specially designed to obviatethe need for guying. However, if guying is essential (e.g. whenthe conductor is fixed with a flat support on the roof waterproofing, or is exposed to particularly strong winds), the guysshould be made of Ø 5.6 fibre glass. When metal cables areused for guying, the lower anchoring points should be interconnectedwith the down conductor by a conductive materialof the same type. We offer a range of fixtures adapted to mostrequirements.Installation specifications are detailed in the individual productdata sheets.If several lightning air terminals (ESEAT or SRAT) are used inthe outside installation on the same structure, they should beconnected by a conductor, except when this has to pass anobstacle of more than 40 cm in height.D ≤ 40 cm: connect ESEATsD ≥ 40 cm: do not connect air terminalsWhen protecting open-air sites such as sports grounds, golfcourses, swimming pools, and camping sites, ESEATs areinstalled on special supports such as lighting masts, pylons, or any other nearby structures from which the conductor cancover the area to be protected.Our software OPR Designer is able to design a completelightning protection system with all installations details, listingof material, protections areas layout, tests certificates within acomplete technical document that is available for the client inpdf format.d ≤ 40 cm d ≤ 40 cm d ≤ 40 cmInterconnection rule when several ESEAT on the same roofABB OPR lightning protection systems | 15Lightning capture devicesSpecial casesAntennasBy agreement with the user of the antenna, the device canbe mounted on the antenna mast, provided that allowance ismade for a number of factors notably:– the lightning air terminal tip must culminate at least 2 mabove the antenna– the aerial coaxial cable is routed inside the antenna mast– the common supporting mast will no need guying– the connection to the down conductor will be made using aclamp fixed to the foot of the mast.This process, widely used today, offers three advantages:– technical (it earths the aerial itself)– visual (there is only one mast)– cost.To be noted that an ESEAT electronic generator cannot beused in an atmosphere where the temperature is greater than120°.Industrial chimneyESE air terminal:– the lightning air terminal should be mounted on an offsetmast (2CTH0HRI3501) as far as possible from smoke andcorrosive vapours– the mast should be fixed to 2 points as shown in the diagram.To be noted that an ESEAT electronic generator cannot beused in an atmosphere where the temperature is greater than120°.Single rod air terminal:The lightning air terminals (1 or 2 m) should be mounted onstainless steel supports (2CTH0HPS2630) to enable mountingat a 30° angle. They will be interconnected by a belt conductorpositioned 50 cm from the summit of the chimney.When using 1 m air terminal at least two points should beused and placed at intervals of no more than 2 m around theperimeter.When using strike points of at least 2 m in height, the numberof points should be calculated to cover the protection radius.SteepleThe lightning air terminal have been designed to carry roofornaments (rooster, weathervane, cardinal points, etc.).The down conductor is then fixed below the ornaments.2 mminimumESEATØ 35 mm stainless steelESEAT mast2CTH070011R0000500 mmantennasteel hoopsdownconductorESEAToffset mastdown conductorwind indicatorroostertightening screwcardinalpointsconnecting clamp750 mmESEAT basedown conductorESEAT16 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsDown conductorsOverviewDown conductors should preferably be made with tin-platedred copper strips, 30 mm wide and 2 mm thick.Lightning is a high frequency current that flows along theperiphery of the conductors. For a like cross-section, a flatconductor has a greater periphery.An exception to the above rule is buildings with aluminiumcladding on which a copper down conductor might generatean electrolytic coupling phenomenon.Here a 30 x 3 mm aluminium strip should be used or bimetalconnection.In some cases where it is impossible to fix the copper strip, around Ø 8 mm tin-plated copper conductor. In the case wherethere is a need of mechanical movement of the down conductoruse a 30 x 3 mm flexible tin-platted copper braid.PathThe path should be planned to take account of the location ofthe earth termination. The path should be as straight and shortas possible avoiding any sharp bends or upturns. Curvatureradii should be no less than 20 cm. To divert the down conductorlaterally, 30 x 2 mm tin-plated red copper preformedbends should be used.The down conductor path should be chosen to avoid intersectionand to be routed along electrical ducts. Shieldingthe electrical ducts 1 m on each side can be done when it isimpossible to avoid crossing them. However when crossoverscannot be avoided, the conduit should be protected insidemetal sheeting extending by 1 m on either side of the crossover.This metal sheeting should be connected to the downconductor.However, in exceptional cases where an outside downconductor cannot be installed, the conductor may run downthrough a service duct, provided that this is used for no otherpurpose (and subject to agreement with the safety servicesand inspection organizations).When a building is fitted with a metallic external cladding orstone facing or in glass, or in the case of a fixed covering partof the facade, the down conductor can be installed on theconcrete facade or on the main structure, under the cladding.In this case, the conductive parts of the cladding must beconnected to the down conductor at the top and at thebottom.The down conductor, if not a copper one, shall be located atmore than 10 cm behind inflammable material of the outsidecladding if its cross section area if lower than 100 mm². Forcross section area of 100 mm² or greater, there is no need tokeep a distance between the down conductor and theflammable material.A specific calculation of the temperature increase may be performedto validate a different rule.The same requirements apply also to all inflammable materialeven on the roof (e.g. thatched roof).Indoor routingWhen a down conductor cannot be installed outside thestructure, it can be fitted inside on a part or on the full heightof the structure. In this case, the down conductor must beplaced inside a dedicated non flammable and insulating duct.The separation distance shall be calculated also for indoordown conductors in order to be able to determine the necessaryinsulation level of the dedicated duct.The building operator has to be aware of the resultingdifficulties to check and maintain the down conductors, and ofthe resulting risks of over voltages inside the building.Access of people to the specific cable channel should beavoided in stormy periods or measures of protection as peroutdoor down conductors should be fulfilled (see Annex DNF C 17-102 Vers September 2011) including equipotentialbondings of floors with the down conductor.Down-conductor bend shapesLd LdLdLLddL: length of the loop, in metersd: width of the loop, in metersThe risk of any dielectricbreakdown is avoided ifthe condition d>L/20is fulfilled.ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 17Down conductorsParapet wallsWhen the face of the parapet wall is less than or equal to40 cm, an upward section in the down conductor is allowedwith a maximum slope of no more than 45°. For parapet wallswith an upward section of more than 40 cm, space should beallowed or a hole drilled to accommodate a 50 mm minimumdiameter sheath and thereby avoid bypassing. If this is notpossible, supports of the same height as the parapet wallshould be installed to avoid an upturn.ConnectionThe lightning air terminal is connected to the downconductor by a connecting clamp that must be tightly securedon to the mast. The strip will be secured along the extensionmasts by stainless steel clamps. The conductors can beconnected together by coupling strips.FastenersWhatever the supporting medium the down conductor mustbe secured by at least 3 fasteners per linear meter. Insulatorsare used to distance the conductors and prevent contact witheasily flammable material (thatch or wood, for example).The fastener must be appropriate for the structure materialand installed so as not to impair watertightness and allow theconductor thermal extension.Test jointEach down conductor must be fitted with a test joint or connectionlink to enable measurement of the resistance of thelightning earth system alone and the electrical continuity of thedown conductor.The test coupling is usually placed about 2 m above groundlevel to make it accessible for inspection purposes only. To becompliant with standards, the test joint should be identified bythe words "lightning air terminal" and the "earth" symbol.On metal pylons, framework or cladding, the test joint shouldbe placed on the ground in inspection earth pit about 1 m fromthe foot of the metal wall to avoid distorting the resistancemeasurement of the earth connection by inevitably measuringthe electrical resistance on the other metallic networks in thebuilding.Protecting flatBetween the test joint and the ground, the strip is protectedby a 2 m galvanized or stainless steel sheet metal flat fixed by3 clamps supplied with the flat.The protecting flat can be bent to follow the profile of thebuilding.Warning Notice: Protection measures against step andtouch voltagesIn certain conditions, the vicinity of the down-conductors of anESE System, outside the structure, may be hazardous to lifestrip 30 x 2 mmcopper roundø 6 or 8 mm330lead play30 or 4030test jointprotectingathookdown conductorstriplead dowelcopper tape30 x 2 mm3 screw-in stainlesssteel clamps on the2 m of protecting atprotecting ateven if the ESE System has been designed and constructedaccording to the above-mentioned requirements.The hazard is reduced to a tolerable level if one of thefollowing conditions is fulfilled:The probability of persons approaching, or the duration oftheir presence outside the structure and close to the downconductors, is very low. The natural down-conductor systemconsists of typically more than ten columns of the extensivemetal framework of the structure or of several pillars ofinterconnected steel of the structure, with the electricalcontinuity assured;The contact resistance of the surface layer of the soil, within3 m of the down-conductor, is not less than 100 kΩ.NOTE: A layer of insulating material, e.g. asphalt, of 5 cmthickness (or a layer of gravel 15 cm thick) generally reducesthe hazard to a tolerable level. If none of these conditions isfulfilled, protection measures shall be adopted against injury toliving beings due to touch voltages as follows:– insulation of the exposed down-conductor is providedgiving a 100 kV, 1.2/50 μs impulse withstand voltage, e.g. at least 3 mm cross-linked polyethylene– physical restrictions and/or warning notices to minimize theprobability of down-conductors being touched. We proposein our catalogue Warning Notice (2CTH0PSH2009) toprevent touch voltage.40 cmmax45°maxWarning Notice18 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsDown conductorsLightning stroke counterWhen the regulations require the installation of a lightningstroke counter, or to know when to make a complete verificationof the installation after a lightning stroke. One per ESEATor SRAT should be fitted. Regarding mesh cage installationone every 4 down conductor should be installed. The test jointaround 2 m above the ground. The counter is connected inserial on the down conductor.Lightning stroke counter and recorder is used to store dateand time of the impact as well as lightning current values.Meshed conductorsOn roofIs carried on the roof meshes with conductors of which thewidth depends on the level of protection and those ones mustnot be greater than 20 m as follows:It is primarily a closed polygon whose perimeter is adjacentthe periphery of the roof, this polygon is then complete bytransverse conductors to satisfy the condition on the maximumwidth of the meshes. If there is a ridge, the conductormust follow it.Air terminals are placed vertically at the highest and mostvulnerable points on the buildings (roof ridges, salient points, edges, corners, etc.).They are arranged at regular intervals around the periphery ofthe roof as follows:– the distance between two 30 cm air terminals should notexceed 15 m– the distance between two 50 cm air terminals should notexceed 20 m– strike air terminals not located on the outer polygon areconnected to the polygon as follows:- either by a conductor excluding any upturn if the air terminalsis less than 5 m from the polygon- or by two conductors in opposite directions forming atransversal section if the air terminals is located morethan 5 m from the polygon.On wallThe down conductors are placed on the corners and salientfeatures of the building in a layout that should be as symmetricaland regular as possible.The average distance between two adjacent down conductorsdepends on the required protection level.Protection level(IEC 62305-2)Distance between 2 downconductors (IEC 62305-3)Roof mesh size(IEC 62305-3)I 10 m 5 x 5II 10 m 10 x 10III 15 m 15 x 15IV 20 m 20 x 20ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 19Equipotential bondingOverviewWhen lightning current flows through a conductor, differencesin potential appear between the conductor and nearby metallicnetworks (steel framework, pipes, etc.) inside or outsidethe building. Dangerous sparks may be produced betweenthe two ends of the resulting open loop.There are two ways to avoid this problem:a) Establish an interconnection providing an equipotentialbond between the conductor and the metallic networksb) Allow a separation distance between the conductor and themetallic networks.The separation distance is the distance beyond which no dangeroussparks can be produced between the down conductorcarrying the lightning current and nearby metallic networks.Because it is often difficult to guarantee that the lightningprotection system is sufficiently isolated during installation orwill remain so in the event of structural changes, on-site work, etc., equipotential bonding is often preferred.There are, however, some cases in which equipotential bondingis not used (e.g. when there are flammable or explosivepiping net-works). In this case, the down conductors arerouted beyond the separation distance "s".Separation distance calculationS (m) = ki.kc.Lkmwhere:"kc" is a coefficient determined by the number of downconductors per ESEAT:kc = 1 for one down conductor, kc = 0.75 for two down conductors, kc = 0.6 for three conductors, kc = 0.41 for four ormore conductors." ki " is determined by the required protection level:ki = 0.08 for protection level 1 (high protection), for veryexposed or strategic buildingski = 0.06 for protection level 2 (reinforced protection, exposedbuilding)ki = 0.04 for protection level 3 & 4 (standard protection)"km" is related to the material situated between the twoloop ends:km : 1 for airkm = 0.5 for a solid material other than metal"L" is the length between the point at which proximity ismeasured and the point at which the metallic network isearthed or the nearest equipotential bonding point.S1L1L2S2air conditioningearthingbarExampleAn ESEAT with two down conductors protects a 20 m highbuilding with protection level I.– Question 1 : Should an air conditioning extractor locatedon the roof be interconnected if 3 m away from the downconductor? Length L1 = 25 m.Answer 1 : S1 = 0.08 x 0.75 x 25 / 1 = 1.5 mSince the distance (3 m) between the conductor and the airconditioningsystem is greater than the separation distance(1.5 meters), there is no need to interconnect this extractor.– Question 2 : Should the computer located in the building 3m away from the down conductor be interconnected withthe conductor, where L2 = 10 m?Answer 2 : S2 = 0.08 x 0.75 x 10 / 0.5 = 1.2 mSince the distance between the computer and the downconductor (3 m) is greater than the separation distance(1.2 m), there is no need to interconnect this computer.A tool is available that can be used to quickly calculate theseparation distances.20 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsEquipotential bondingEquipotential bonding of external metallic networksThe equipotential bonding of external metallic networks is anintegral part of the outdoor lightning protection installation justlike the down conductors and their earths.All conductive metallic networks located at a distance of lessthan s (separation distance) from a conductor should beconnected to the conductor by a conductive material with alike cross-section.The aerial masts and small posts supporting electrical powerlines should be connected to the conductor via a mastarrester. Earthing systems embedded in walls should beconnected to the conductor if terminal connections have beenprovided.Equipotential bonding of internal metallic networksThe equipotential bonding of internal metallic networks is anintegral part of the indoor lightning protection installation.All conductive metallic networks in the structure (steelframeworks, ducts, sheathing, electrical raceways or telecommunicationcable trays, etc.) should be connected to theconductor. This is done by using a conductive material witha cross-section of at least 6 mm² for copper or 16 mm² forsteel to connect to equipotential bonding bars installed insidethe structure and connected in turn to the closest point of theearthing circuit.Unscreened telecommunication or electrical conductorsshould be bonded to the lightning protection system via surgearresters.Equipotential bonding of earthsThis is done by using a conductive material with across-section of at least 16 mm² for copper or 50 mm²for steel to connect bonding bar to earth termination system.interconnection withbuilding loop112233telephone line protectionlow voltage power supplyprotectionIT system protection44TV protectionESEAT OPRABB OPR lightning protection systems | 21Earth termination systemsOverviewEach down conductor in a lightning protection system must beconnected to an earth termination system which fulfils four conditions:– The earth termination resistance valueInternational standards stipulate an earth termination resistancevalue of less than 10 ohms.This value should be measured on the earth connection isolatedfrom any other conductive component.If the resistance value of 10 ohms cannot be achieved, the earthtermination is nonetheless considered compliant if it is made up ofat least 160 m (protection level 1) or 100 m (protection level 2, 3& 4) of conductors or electrodes, each section measuring no morethan 20 m.– Current carrying capacityThis is an often overlooked but essential aspect of lightningconduction. To minimise the earthing system impedance value, a parallel configuration of three electrodes is strongly recommendedinstead of just one excessively long electrode.– Equipotential bondingStandards require the equipotential bonding of lightningearth termination systems with the existing earthing systems.This must be done using 16 mm² (copper) or 50 mm² (steel)minimum cross section conductor.– Distance from buried utilitiesEarth termination should be at least 2 m (if soil resistivity is over500 ohms/m 5 m) distant from any buried metal pipe or electricalconduit, not connected to the main equipotential bonding of thestructure.Inspection earth pitThe connection parts of an earth termination system (duck's footconnector, earth rod, test joint) can be accessed in an inspection earthpit.Lightning air terminalsDucks foot connectorThe minimum earth termination system is made up of 25 m of30 x 2 mm tin-plated copper strip, split into 3 strands buried in3 trenches at a depth of 60 to 80 cm dug in a fan shape like a duck'sfoot: one end of the longest strand is connected to the test joint, thetwo other strands being linked to a special connection known as aduck foot's connector.Earth rodsWhen the site topography does not lend itself to the installation of aduck's foot as described above, an earth termination system can bedeveloped using at least 3 copper earth rods each with a minimumlength of 2 m, buried vertically in the ground; the rods should bespaced at intervals of about 2 m and at a mandatory distance of 1 mto 1.5 m from the foundations.protectionat30 x 2 mm down conductor6 to 9 m depending on soilresistance1 m from wall depth60 to 80 cm8 to 12 mstainlesssteel clampNB: the earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning gridDUCK'S FOOT EARTHTERMINATION SYSTEMduck'sfootconnectorDuck's foot earth termination systemIt is recommended to cover the earth termination system with a red or orange warningplastic mesh.protectionat30 x 2 mm strip2 m1 m from wall depth60 to 80 cmstainless steelclampNB: the earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning grid 2 m rodearth rod clampROD TRIANGLE EARTHTERMINATION SYSTEMRod triangle earth termination systemIt is recommended to cover the earth termination system with a red or orange warningplastic mesh.DUCK'S FOOT EARTH TERMINATIONSYSTEM WITH EARTH RODSprotectionat30 x 2 mm strip8 to 12 mdepth 6 to 9 m 60 to 80 cmduck'sfootconnectorstainlesssteel clampNB: the earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning gridrodearth rodclamp1 m from wallDuck's foot earth termination system with earth rodsIt is recommended to cover the earth termination system with a red or orange warningplastic mesh.22 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsEarth termination systemsCombinedIf the soil type is not altogether suitable for a duck's foot connector, a combination of duck's foot and earth rods will significantlyenhance protection (better earth resistance). In this case, the endof each duck foot connector strand is connected to an earth rod.Meshed conductorsDuck's foot connectorThe earth connection is made up of 3 conductors each 3 mminimum in length, buried horizontally at a depth of 60 to 80 cm.One of the strips is connected to one end of the test joint; theother two splay out at an angle of 45° on either side of this centralstrand and are coupled to it with a special connector known as aduck's foot connector. The resistance value must be less than 10ohms. If the resistance value of 10 ohms cannot be achieved, theearth termination is nonetheless considered compliant if it is madeup of at least 160 m of electrode in level 1, 100 m in level 2 and10 m in level 3 & 4.Earth rodsThe earth connection is made up of 2 spiked vertical rods at least2 m in length, connected to each other and to the down conductor, and at least 2 m from each other. The rods should be 1 m to1.5 m from the foundations. The earth termination systems in abuilding should be connected together with a conductor with thesame cross-section and of the same type as the down conductors.Where there is an existing entrenched earth protection loopin the foundations for the building's 2 m flat electrical installations, there is no need to create a new loop: the earth terminations cansimply 0.6 m be interconnected by a tin-plated 30 x 2 mm copperstrip. The resistance value must be less than 10 ohms. If the resistancevalue of 10 ohms cannot be achieved, the earth terminationis nonetheless considered compliant if it is made up of at least160 m (80 m if vertical rods) of electrode in level 1, 100 m (50 m ifvertical rods) in level 2 and 10 m (5 m if vertical rods) in level 3 & 4.Earthing system equipotential bondingWhen the protected building or area has an existing earth terminationsystem for the electrical installations, the lightning earthtermination systems should be connected to it.This interconnection should be made to the earthing circuit at theclosest point to the down conductor.When this is impossible in an existing building, the interconnectionshould be made to the earth plate. In this case, the interconnectingconductor should be constructed such that no currents areinduced in nearby equipment cables.In all cases, the interconnection should include a device that canbe disconnected to enable measurements of the resistance of thelightning earth termination system.This device can be made up of either an interconnection box forequipotential bonding fixed to the main wall of the building, or anequipotential bonding bar located in an inspection earth pit.Duck's foot system for a meshed cageIt is recommended to cover the earth termination system with a red or orange warningplastic mesh.protectionat30 x 2 mm strip3 m1 m from wall depth60 to 80 cm4 mstainlesssteel clampNB: the earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning gridDUCK'S FOOT SYSTEMFOR A MESHED CAGEduck'sfootconnector2 m0.6 m2 mtestjointprotectionat2 rodsD: down conductor of a lightning air terminalB: entrenched building loopP: lightning conductor earth termination systemtestjointdisconnectableconnectionDPBABB OPR lightning protection systems | 23Inspection ESEAT maintenanceThe current standards NF C 17-102 September 2011 editionrecommends regular, periodical inspections of the lightningprotection system.The following schedules are recommended:Protection level Visual inspection(year)Complete inspection(year)Critical system completeinspection (year)I and II 1 2 1III and IV 2 4 1Note: Critical systems shall be defined by laws or end users.A lightning protection system should also be inspected wheneverthe protection structure is modified, repaired or when thestructure has been struck by lightning.Lightning strikes can be recorded by a lightning strike counterinstalled on one of the down conductors.ESEAT maintenance kit, a unique solutionWith its experience of ESEAT development and specialtesting processes, ABB offers a simple and complete solution:a telescopic 8 m pole supplied with a portable test case toenable simple in situ inspections.The device can be used without dismantling the ESEAT.The following aspects of an ESE System installationshould be inspected (see NF C 17-102 September 2011edition pagraph 8)A visual inspection should be performed to make sure that:– no damage related to lightning has been noted– integrity of ESE System has not been modified– no extension or modification of the protected structureneeds the installation of additional lightning protectionmeasures– the electrical continuity of visible conductors is correct– all component fasteners and mechanical protectors are ingood condition– no parts have been weakened by corrosion– the separation distance is respected and there are enoughequipotential bondings and their condition is correct– SPD end of life indicator is correct– maintenance operations results are checked and recordedComplete verification includes visual verification and thefollowing measurements to check:– the electrical continuity of hidden conductors– the earth termination system resistance values (anyvariation with regards to initial values > 50 % should beanalysed)– properly working of ESEAT according to manufacturerprocedure.NOTE: High frequency earth system measurement is feasible during installation or inmaintenance operation in order to check the coherence between the needs and theinstalled earth system.The findings of each scheduled inspection should be recordedin a detailed report stating the required corrective measures.Any faults identified in a scheduled inspection should becorrected as soon as possible in order to maintain optimallightning protection.Initial verification should be performed once the ESE systeminstallation is completed in order to make sure that it complieswith the NF C 17-102 standard requirements.24 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsLightning air terminal rangeESEAT typical installation on masonry buildingOPR lightning conductorp.26Coupling accessoriesp.36Hooks p.37Test joint p.39Duck foot connectorp.41Lightning strokecounter and recorderp.43Extension mast p.31Conductor supportingstud p.37Ruberalu bracketsp.37Antenna mastarrester p.43Boltedbrackets p.33Protecting flatp.39Equipotential boxp.39Type 1 surge protective devicehighly recommendedABB OPR lightning protection systems | 25Lightning air terminal rangeESEAT typical installation on metal claddingOPR lightningconductor p.26Threaded basesp.35Test joint p.39Interconnection boxp.39Lightning strokecounter p.43Stainless steel clipp.37Protecting flatp.39Water deflecting conesp.35WaterproofStainless steel clipp.37Type 1 surge protective devicehighly recommended26 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsLightning air terminal range - Early Streamer EmissionOPR, the high pulse voltage, initiation advance lightningair terminalABB continues to innovate, and has developed a new generationof lightning devices. The new OPR range with increasedinitiation advance performances, represents further progressin terms of protection, operating autonomy and ease of maintenance.These advancements reinforce ABB's position asInternational leader in direct lightning protection with over 200000 installations throughout the world.ABB manufacturing qualityThe enviable reputation of the OPR has been earned throughmaintaining a consistently high quality in manufacture. Beforeleaving the factory, each OPR has been tested for installationbreakdown at high voltage, and subjected to a currenttest that ensures its performance when conducting lightningdischarges. The high voltage output pulses at the OPR arealso examined to verify correct amplitude and frequency. TheOPR is built to withstand the arduous conditions encounteredin service, and its ongoing performance can be monitoredsimply and quickly using the OPR test set.The advantage of initiation advanceThe unique efficiency of the OPR lightning air terminal isbased on a specific initiation advance, well before the naturalformation of an upward leader, the OPR generates a leaderthat rapidly propagates to capture the lightning and direct it toearth. Validated in the laboratory, this gain in time relative tothe simple rod provides additional essential protection.Complete autonomyDuring a storm the ambient electric field may rise to between10 to 20 kV/m. As soon as the field exceeds a thresholdrepresenting the minimum risk of a lightning strike, the OPRlightning terminal is activated. It draws its energy from theambient electric field the energy required to generate highvoltage pulses, creating and propagating an upward leader.No other power sources are required, and no radioactivecomponents are used.Upward leaders Return arc Meeting pointA B C DOPR Upward leaders Meeting pointA B C DABB OPR lightning protection systems | 27RodCheck system: visual strike indicatorThe aim of the RodCheck system is to give visual information on the intensity of the lightning current caughtby the OPR even from a long distance.We need to keep in mind that the lightning rod is a security device that permits to limit risk and thereforecontributes to the safety of the people. Indeed a lightning impact may lead to explosion, to fire and consequentlybe a risk for the people within the structure.As for any security device, it is important to figure out directly its degree of aging, which is linked to the lightningstrike current to which it has been subjected.On many sites lightning rods are usually equipped with counters that detect the flow of current without necessarilygiving information about its intensity.Only a digital counter could give such characteristics, but it would undoubtedly increase the price of theoverall installation.On the other hand, the new edition of the NF C 17-102 also states that from January 2009 it has been compulsoryto have two down conductors per ESEAT. Therefore, as the counters are usually placed only on oneof the two down conductors, they don't record the entire value of the current.The RodCheck system has been developed so as to solve this specific security issue and it provides anestimate of the intensity of the lightning strike at first glance.Thanks to the new RodCheck technology, the OPR considerably reinforces and improves the security of sitesand people and provides the right answer to a perfectly justified question: "Has the lightning rod been deeplyhit and is it necessary to check the installation?"This visual indicator is made of a UV resistant EPDM shell, mounted directly on the OPR external spark gap.RodCheck has not beenhit by a lightning strokeRodCheck after lightningstroke of few kARodCheck after severalstrokes or one of more than40 kALightning air terminal rangeEarly Streamer Emission Air Terminal - ESEAT1 2 3In the examples 2 and 3 we recommend performing a test of the OPR's electronics and afterwards the redring may be put back in the initial position (example 1).As long as there is no indication of strike it is not necessary to test the generator. But on the other hand, westrongly recommend a complete check of the lighting rod OPR, including the check of its internal electronicsystem in case of a lightning impact. An 8 m high pole connected to a test case is needed to carry out thetest of the generator.28 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsLightning air terminal rangeEarly Streamer Emission Air Terminal - ESEATTypical applicationsIndustrial sites, buildings, warehouses, where a large protection area is needed.Ordering detailsOPR∆T Description Type Order code Ean code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)µs kg30 OPR 30 IMH3000 2CTB899800R7000 3660308514172 1 2.40045 OPR 45 IMH4500 2CTB899800R7500 3660308514706 1 2.40060 OPR 60 IMH6000 2CTB899800R7100 3660308514189 1 2.400Mast to be ordered separately.Maximum operating temperature: 120 °C.OPR radius of protectionLevel of protection I (r = 20 m) II (r = 30 m) III (r = 45 m) IV (r = 60 m)Type OPR 30 OPR 45 OPR 60 OPR 30 OPR 45 OPR 60 OPR 30 OPR 45 OPR 60 OPR 30 OPR 45 OPR 60h (m) Radius of protection Rp (m)2 19 25 31 22 28 35 25 32 39 28 36 433 29 38 47 33 42 52 38 48 58 43 57 644 38 51 63 44 57 69 51 65 78 57 72 855 48 63 79 55 71 86 63 81 97 71 89 1076 48 63 79 55 71 87 64 81 97 72 90 1078 49 64 79 56 72 87 65 82 98 73 91 10810 49 64 79 57 72 88 66 83 99 75 92 10915 50 65 80 58 73 89 69 85 101 78 95 11120 50 65 80 59 74 89 71 86 102 81 97 11345 43 65 76 58 75 89 75 90 105 89 104 11950 40 65 74 57 75 88 75 90 105 89 104 12055 36 65 72 55 75 86 74 90 105 90 105 12060 30 65 69 52 75 85 73 90 104 90 105 120Note: the optimized radius of protection is reached when placing the ESE lightning conductor at 5 m above the highest point of the structure to protect. A minimum of 2 m is a must.Rp3Rp1 Rp2h3h1 h2Rp(h) : Protection radius at a given height (h) for h ≥ 5 mRp(h) = √ 2rh - h2 + ∆(2r + ∆)For h < 5 m, refer to the table aboveh : Height of the OPR tip above the surface(s) to be protectedr(m) : Standardized striking distance∆(m) = 106 .∆T (OPR efficiency)Calculating protected areasThe radius of protection Rp of an OPR is given by French standard NFC 17-102 (September 2011 edition).It depends on the ESEAT efficiency ∆T of the OPR measured in thehigh voltage laboratory, on the levels of protection I, II, III or IV calculatedaccording to the lightning risk assessment guides or standards(NF C 17-102 annex A or IEC 62305-2, guides UTE C 17-100-2 or UTEC 17-108) and on the height h of the lightning air terminal over the areato be protected (minimum height = 2 m).The protection radius is calculated according to Annex C in Frenchstandard NF C 17-102. For OPR 60, limiting the value of ∆T used inthe protection radius calculations to 60 µs (limited 60 µs in accordancewith the paragraph 5.2.2 of the NF C 17-102 standard).LPL I LPL II LPL III LPL IVRolling sphere radius r(m) 20 30 45 60ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 29Typical applicationsSmall structure, pylons, chimney.DescriptionThe rods are made of a tapered solid stainless steel tip (L = 0.20 m), a stainless steel mast of 1 or 2 mlength, to be ordered separately. In accordance with standard IEC 62305-3 (paragraph 5.2.2), the protectionradii are as follows:Radius of protection Rp (m)HmLevel of protection HmI II III IV2 5 6 9 114 8 10 12 156 10 12 15 208 10 13 17 2110 10 14 17 2220 10 15 21 29H: height of conductor tip above protected surface(s).Rp: radius of protection in horizontal plane located at a vertical distance h from the conductor tip.Ordering detailsLength Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)m kg0.20 Stainless steel tip (A) and connection clamp (D) PTS3000 2CTH010004R0000 3660308521828 2.5001.00 1 m stainless steel air termination mast (B) HPI3001 2CTH010001R0000 3660308521316 2.0002.00 2 m stainless steel air termination mast (C) HPI3002 2CTH010002R0000 3660308521323 3.500αhRp(B) 1 m(C) 2 mPROTECTION OF INDIVIDUAL HOUSES2 m minimumprotecting flatdisconnectable equipotential bondingtype 1 powerlineprotectiontelephone lineprotectioncoaxial protectionlightning earth systemtest jointdown conductorsingle rod air terminalRp = 5 to 29 melectrical earthingLightning air terminal rangeSingle Rod Air Terminal - SRAT(A)(D)Protection of individual houses30 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsInstallationLightning air terminal rangeExtension mastsImportant: All these extension masts need to be orderedwith their screw and fixing kits (see next page)OPRORØ 30a) 1.3 m stainless steel ESEAT mast: MAT3001orb) 2.3 m stainless steel ESEAT mast: MAT3002Ø 35d) 2 m extension mast: RAL3502ore) 3 m extension mast: RAL3503Ø 42f) 2 m extension mast: RAL4202org) 3 m extension mast: RAL4203Ø 50h) 2 m extension mast: RAL5002ori) 3 m extension mast: RAL5003Ø 35c) 3 m stainless steel ESEAT mast: MAT3503+ kit for MAT3503: KFP0035ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 31MastsMastsHeight Description Type Order code Ean code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)m kg1.3 Stainless steel ESEAT mast Ø 30 MAT3001 2CTH070001R0000 3660308521651 1 1.9002.3 Stainless steel ESEAT mast Ø 30 MAT3002 2CTH070002R0000 3660308521668 1 3.0003.0 Stainless steel ESEAT mast Ø 35 MAT3503 2CTH070011R0000 3660308521750 1 5.200To be noted that the MAT3503 needs to be ordered with it screw and fixing kit KFP0035 made of a connecting clamp especiallydesigned for Ø 35 mm mast.Kit for MAT3503Description Type Order code Ean code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgScrew and fixing KFP0035 2CTH050027R0000 3660308521781 1 -Extension mastsDescriptionAll the extension masts have to be ordered with their screw kits.Ordering detailsDescription Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgExtension masts2 m stainless steel mast Ø 35 RAL3502 2CTH070005R0000 3660308521699 1 5.2003 m stainless steel mast Ø 35 RAL3503 2CTH070006R0000 3660308521705 1 6.4002 m stainless steel mast Ø 42 RAL4202 2CTH070007R0000 3660308521712 1 6.4003 m stainless steel mast Ø 42 RAL4203 2CTH070008R0000 3660308521729 1 9.6002 m stainless steel mast Ø 50 RAL5002 2CTH070009R0000 3660308521736 1 7.5003 m stainless steel mast Ø 50 RAL5003 2CTH070010R0000 3660308521743 1 11.000Screw and fixing kitScrew and fixing kit for stainless steel mast Ø 35 and 42 (1) KFR3542 2CTH050026R0000 3660308521774 1 –Screw and fixing kit for stainless steel mast Ø 50 (2) KFR0050 2CTH050028R0000 3660308521798 1 –(1) 5 collars, 4 nuts and bolts.(2) 6 collars, 2 nuts and bolts.Selection guideMast configuration without guying kit for a wind.Nominal height ESEAT mast type Extension mast typemBelow 140 km/h and more than 6 km away from the sea4.5 (b + d) b) MAT3002 d) RAL35025.2 (c + d) c) MAT3503 d) RAL35026.2 (c + e) c) MAT3503 e) RAL35037.2 (c + d + f) c) MAT3503 d) RAL3502 + f) RAL4202Up to 170 km/h or close to sea side4.5 (b + d) b) MAT3502 d) RAL35025.2 (c + d) c) MAT3503 d) RAL35026.5 (b + d + f) b) MAT3002 d) RAL3502 + f) RAL42027.2 (c + d + f) c) MAT3502 d) RAL3502 + f) RAL4202Lightning air terminal rangeMasts and extension masts32 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsSelf carrying pylons– material: hot galvanized steel– these pylons are made of a welded steel lattice with a triangular cross-section. Each element is 3 m inlength, except the ground anchoring section (about 1 m)– delivered complete with stainless steel hardware and Ø 35 mm mast head (to receive OPR mast)– the concrete anchorage blocks should be made with concrete in a proportion of 350 kg/m3 and calculatedfor a good ground.Height (1) Self-supportingmZone I136 km/hZone II149 km/hZone III167 km/hZone IV183 km/h9 2CTHCHPA0109 2CTHCHPA0209 2CTHCHPA0309 2CTHCHPA040912 2CTHCHPA0112 2CTHCHPA0212 2CTHCHPA0312 2CTHCHPA041215 2CTHCHPA0115 2CTHCHPA0215 2CTHCHPA0315 2CTHCHPA041518 2CTHCHPA0118 2CTHCHPA0218 2CTHCHPA0318 2CTHCHPA0418(1) Other sizes on request - Technical specifications available - For wind zone V (210 km/h) please consult us.Guyed pylons– material: hot galvanized steel– these pylons are made of a welded steel lattice with a triangular cross-section (centerline distance175 mm) supplied in lengths of 3 or 6 m– use: lightning air terminal supports for flat roofs– fibre glass guying (1 set per section)– delivered complete with base and neoprene tile, Ø 35 mm mast head, fibre glass and accessories (anchoringclips and stay tighteners) for guying, with bolted anchoring.Height (2) Guyedm Zones I and II9 2CTHCHPH090012 2CTHCHPH120015 2CTHCHPH150018 2CTHCHPH1800(2) Other sizes on request - Technical specifications available - For wind zone V (210 km/h) please consult us.Guying kit for lightning rod with mastComplete kit with:– 25 m of fibre glass cable to be ordered separately, 6 anchoring clips, 3 stay tighteners, 3 ring fasteners, 1 3-directional clamp and 1 base (2CTHCHPP4523).Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kgGuying kit FHF0001 2CTH050022R0000 3660308521613 12.00025 m fibre glass cable 5.6 mm FDV5625 2CTH050023Z0000 3660308521620 –OBSTA obstruction lightsThe OBSTA HISTI is an obstruction light for hazard to low-flying aircraft for airport, building, broadcasttransmitting towers, chimneys, bridges and transmission lines.This lamp based on cold neon discharge principle offers high reliability, robustness in hostile environments(EMC, climatic...), proven long life (more than 25 000 hours) on all kinds of obstacle like transmission lines, TV towers and exposure in electromagnetic fields and high temperature.One unique model will adjust itself to the main supply voltages, continuously from 100 V to 240 Vrms, 50/60 Hz.Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)OBSTA HI STI 100 V A 240 V HCO0071 2CTHCHCO0071 – 5OBSTA photoelectric cell 230 V HCO0752 2CTHCHCO0752 – 0.4For another voltage, please contact us.OBSTA low intensity LEDThe NAVILITE is based on LED technology in compliance with ICAO low intensity type recently applied.These lights are devoted to the night marking of all kinds of obstacles with a DC power supply.Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)OBSTA Navilite LED 48VDC HCHCO0900 2CTHCHCO0900 – 0.4For another voltage, please contact us.Lightning air terminal rangePylonsOPRguying ringbaseberglass guystaytighteneranchormasts21ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 33Wall fixing accessoriesBolted brackets– use: bolted fixing for an offset mast on a vertical wall (M 10)– bolt hole diameter: Ø 11 mm– distance between bolt holes: 120 mm.Offset Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)mm kg290 Long bolted bracket PBL0290 2CTH050016R0000 3660308521552 1 1.900125 Short bolted bracket PBC0125 2CTH050015R0000 3660308521545 1 1.400Use 3 brackets for installation of 5 m (and 6 m) consisting of a 2 m (or 3 m) lightning rod with additional 3 m mast, with a wind lessthan 136 km/h if 2 is not sufficient.Offset bracket– use: fixing of a mast offset from a vertical section– offset distance: max. 190 mm.190 Offset bracket for vertical support PDV0190 2CTH050018R0000 3660308521576 1 1.800Pylons, ladders, guardrail or fences fixing accessoriesOffset clamps– use: fixing of a mast offset from a vertical wall or a horizontal section by means of Ø 10 mm bolts.Use Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgHorizontal support 1 - Clamp for horizontal support CDH5001 2CTH050013R0000 3660308521521 1 1.700Vertical support 2 - Clamp for vertical support CDV5001 2CTH050014R0000 3660308521538 1 1.700Version in 3 brackets for installation of 5 m (and 6 m) consisting of a 2 m (or 3 m) lightning rod with additional 3 m mast, with a windless than 136 km/h.Steel hoopsMasonry chimney (rectangular/square section)– use: fixing of a mast on a chimney, a concrete mast, etc. (rectangular/square section).Clamping Ø Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)mm kgfrom 30 to 60 Bracket square section CCC6001 2CTH050020R0000 3660308521590 1 2.000– Coil of steel hoop (25 m) HFC4002 2CTHCHFC4002 3660308523440 1 5.000Metal cylindrical chimney– use: fixing of a mast on a chimney, round section).250 Bracket cylindrical section CCT5001 2CTH050021R0000 3660308521606 1 1.140– Stainless steel tape 20 x 0.7 (50 m) HFP2650 2CTHCHFP2650 3660308523471 1 4.000– Tightening clips 200 mm HCP2651 2CTH0HCP2651 3660308524485 5 0.050Wide offset bracket– use: bolted fixing of a mast offset from a vertical wall (M 10)– material: galvanized steel– offset distance: 45 cm– distance between bolt holes: 54 cm– minimum distance between brackets: 50 cm to fix a set of masts for a building with a height of 5 m; 1 mfor higher buildings– delivered complete with hardware and back plate.Clamping Ø Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)mm kgfrom 30 to 60 Wide offset bracket HPS0010 2CTH0HPS0010 3660308522658 1 10.500Lightning air terminal rangeLateral fixations1234 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsIndustrial chimney offset and bracketOffset for industrial chimney stacksDescription– material: stainless steel– delivered complete with stainless steel connecting clamp for conductor– to offset a solitary air terminal (without extension mast) by 1 m from a chimney stack– assembly: lightning air terminal bolts into right hand tube + offset rod fitted to chimney stack by twobrackets earth with two Ø 8 mm drill holes.Ordering detailsOffset Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)m kg1 Offset for industrial chimney stacks HRI3501 2CTH0HRI3501 3660308522672 1 5.200Industrial chimney bracketDescription– use: to offset a single rod air terminal (1 or 2 m) for a chimney stack– material: stainless steel– delivered complete with stainless kit screw kit.Ordering detailsDescription Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgStainless steel chimney bracket HPS2630 2CTH0HPS2630 3660308522665 1 1.300Lightning air terminal rangeLateral fixationsABB OPR lightning protection systems | 35Ballasted tripods– use: to fit a mast (height 5 m) on flat roof (max. gradient 5 %) without drilling or sticking on the roof– material: galvanized steel.Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kgBallasted tripod - Wind up to 149 km/h TLB5002 2CTHCTLB5002 3660308524430 120.00Ballasted tripod - Wind up to 170 km/h TLB5004 2CTHCTLB5004 3660308524447 200.00Ballasted tripod - Wind up to 186 km/h TLB5005 2CTHCTLB5005 – 350.00For wind speed above 186 km/h a guying kit must be used.Supporting plates / tripods– use: to fix lightning conductors or elevation masts to flat roofs– material: galvanized steel– bolt hole diameters: 12 mm.Height Dimensionsof baseCenterlinedistanceDescription Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm kg330 200 x 200 160 x 160 1 - Plate for OPR (30 mm) or extension mast (35 mm)HPP4523 2CTH0HPP4523 3660308522610 5.500800 420 face 390 face 2 - Tripod for 30 to 50 mm tube TSH4525 2CTHCTSH4525 3660308524454 8.500H0HPP4523: to be used with a guying kitHCTSH4523: maximum height in wind zone 3 is 3 m.Carriage bolt holdfasts– use: to fix a single conductor rod (with no extension mast) in timber frameworks or bedding in masonry– material: galvanized steel– delivered complete with hardware.Effectivethread L.Effective L.after fixingHole Ø Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm m mm kg150 0.10 18 Short sup. HST2044 2CTH0HST2044 3660308522689 1.250Maximum height in wind zone 3 is 5 m (without guying kit)Important: not to omit the use of water deflecting cone to secure watertightness of the installation.Threaded bases– use: to fix a conductor to a metal framework. The conductor may be raised by a Ø 35 mm extension mast– material: galvanized steel– delivered complete with hardware.Maximum tightening L. Thread Ø Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm mm kg115 30 OPR mast base HEF2107 2CTH050033R0000 3660308522511 2.200150 36 Ø 35 mm extension mast base HEF2313 2CTH050034R0000 3660308522528 4.500Maximum height in wind zone 3 is 5 m (without guying kit)Important: not to omit the use of water deflecting cone to secure watertightness of the installation.Water deflecting cones– use: to ensure the watertightness in between the roof and the mast when fixing is used under roofing. Cutaccording to mast diameter (CRE)– material: rubber (CRE).Taper opening Height Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm mm kg6 to 50 55 Water deflecting cone CRE2700 2CTHCCRE2700 3660308523211 0.040Lightning air terminal rangeRoof fixing accessories1236 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsConductorsFlat conductors (1) (sold per meter)Material Section Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weightkg/mTin-plated copper 30 x 2 mm (strip) CPC2712 2CTH040003R0000 3660308523129 1 0.535Tin-plated copper 30 x 2 mm (25 m spool) CPC0025 2CTH040001R0000 3660308521866 25 0.535Tin-plated copper 30 x 2 mm (50 m spool) CPC0050 2CTH040002R0000 3660308521873 50 0.535Stainless steel 30 x 2 mm (strip) CPI2711 2CTHCCPI2711 3660308523150 1 0.474Galvanized steel 30 x 3.5 mm CPG3035 2CTHCCPG3035 3660308523143 1 0.870(1) Other dimensions on request.Round conductors (2)Material Section Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weightmm² kg/mØ 8 tin-plated copper 50 (50 m spool) CRC8000 2CTH040005R0000 3660308524676 50 0.450Ø 8 red copper 50 (50 m spool) CRC8001 2CTH040006R0000 3660308524683 50 0.450(2) Other dimensions on request.Shunts– electrolytically tin-plated flat flexible copper braid with welded eyelet at each end– other lengths and cross-sections available on request.Length Section Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)m mm² kg0.30 50 STP5030 2CTH0STP5030 3660308522870 1 0.1600.50 50 STP5050 2CTH0STP5050 3660308522887 1 0.2700.75 50 STP5075 2CTH0STP5075 3660308522894 1 0.4001.00 50 STP5100 2CTH0STP5100 3660308522900 1 0.600Coupling accessoriesCoupling strips– use: for coupling or crossing two conductors without riveting– the "standard" models accommodate 30 mm wide strips and rounds with Ø 6 and 8 mm– the "multiple" model also enables crossings of round conductors– the special strip model only accommodates flat strips.Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kg1 - Galvanized steel "standard" coupling BRP2680 2CTHCBRP2680 3660308523082 1 0.3002 - Copper "standard" coupling BRC2780 2CTH0BRC2780 3660308522047 1 0.2103 - Copper "multiple" coupling BRX3780 2CTH0BRX3780 3660308522115 1 0.3004 - Special copper coupling for strip BRH2779 2CTH0BRH2779 3660308522092 1 0.2005 - Special stainless steel coupling for strip BRI2779 2CTH0BRI2779 3660308522108 1 0.2046 - 3 x 2 and Ø 8 mm line coupling BRC2781 2CTH0BRC2781 3660308522054 1 0.202Connector for round conductorsDescription Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgLug with offset base for 8 mm conductors PRC8000 2CTHCPRC8000 3660308524300 1 0.050Lightning air terminal rangeConductors and coupling accessories1 24 356ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 37Roof fixing accessoriesConductor supporting studs– material: black synthetic exterior filled with cement (except 2CTHCHPV2771 to be filled up by your means)– eliminates the need to drill through waterproofing to attach the conductor– can be glued with neoprene glue– height: 8 cm.Use Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgØ 8 mm conductor30 x 2 mm conductorCable raceway1 - Hollow stud HPV2771 2CTHCHPV2771 3660308524072 1 0.160Ø 8 mm conductor30 x 2 mm conductor2 - Solid stud (clip) HPB2772 2CTHCHPB2772 3660308523945 1 1.290Ruberalu brackets for flat roof with waterproofing– material: bituminised aluminium– these brackets are attached by hot-melt gluing.Dimensions Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)mm kg150 x 40 HBR2717 2CTH0HBR2717 3660308522375 1 0.020Rolls also available.Clipped tile fasteners– material: tin-plated copper strip saddle 25 x 1 mm– Stainless steel clips: used for fixing 30 x 2 mm strips to all types of slated or unbedded roofing tiles (1)– PVC clips: used for round conductors, exists in red copper colour or grey (2).For flat conductors1 - Tile fastener with stainless steel clip for flat conductor HAA2673 2CTH0HAA2673 3660308522238 1 0.043For round conductors2 - Tile fastener with grey PVC clips for round conductor HAR2745 2CTH0HAR2745 3660308522283 1 0.0452 - Tile fastener with red copper colour PVC clips for round conductor HAR2746 2CTH0HAR2746 3660308522290 1 0.045Wall fixing accessories for flat conductorsMasonry wall hooks– fixing: on masonry by hookds into lead dowels– for flat strip.Material Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgGalvanized steel Hook 30 mm CMA3020 2CTH050032Z0000 3660308521859 20 0.014Lead Dowel CPB3020 2CTH050030Z0000 3660308521835 20 0.003Screw fastener– for 30 mm wide strip: supplied with wood screw– material: brass.Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgMasonry screw fastener HCL2642 2CTH0HCL2642 3660308522443 1 0.020Metal cladding wallsStainless steel clips– material: stainless steel– for fixing a flat strip conductor– fixed with pop rivets or screws (Ø 4 mm) not supplied.1 - Stainless steel clips for 30 x 2 CIP3020 2CTH050031Z0000 3660308521842 20 0.0022 - Aluminium waterproof pop rivets Ø 4 HRP0100 2CTH050011Z0000 3660308521507 100 0.0032 - Aluminium waterproof rivets Ø 4 HRP0500 2CTH050012Z0000 3660308521514 500 0.0033 - Stainless steel clip for waterproof cladding for 30 x 2 HCB4240 2CTH0HCB4240 3660308522399 1 0.002Lightning air terminal rangeConductor fasteners123122138 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsWaterproof fixing on cladding– fixing: on cladding and roofs of galvanized or thermo-lacquered steel plate (code: 2CTH0FDT0045)– fixing: on tiles or fibro-cement (code: 2CTH0FDT0046)– fixed entirely from outside and guaranteeing perfect watertightness. May be equipped with a bakeliteinsulator– drill hole Ø 10 mm.Use Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgMetal cladding dowel L. 15 mm FDT0045 2CTH0FDT0045 3660308522191 1 0.030Tiles or cement fibre dowel L. 25 mm FDT0046 2CTH0FDT0046 3660308522207 1 0.040Insulating supports– fixing: strip on timber framework or thatch– material: bakelite– supplied complete with wood screws– 2CTH0HIS6000 for flat conductors, 2CTH0HAR... for round conductors.Insulator height H Colour Thread Ø Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)mm mm kg35 black 6 HIS6000 2CTH0HIS6000 3660308522542 1 0.050– grey 8 HAR2645 2CTH0HAR2645 – 1 0.050– copper 8 HAR2646 2CTH0HAR2646 3660308522276 1 0.050Wall fixing accessories for round conductorsPVC fixtures– fixing: on 30 mm wide strip with isolation from supporting material (screw hole spacing 15 mm– colour: grey or copper.Use Colour Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgMasonry Grey Grey PVC fixture HAR2445 2CTHCHAR2445 3660308523341 1 0.007Masonry Grey Grey PVC fixture with screw kit HAR2845 2CTH0HAR2845 3660308522313 1 0.016Masonry Copper Copper PVC fixture with screw kit HAR2846 2CTH0HAR2846 3660308522320 1 0.016Masonry fixture– for round conductor: supplied with wood screw– material: copper.Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgCopper fixing accessory for Ø 8 mm SCP3000 2CTHCSCP3000 3660308524409 1 0.046Pylon or ladder fixing accessories for round or flat conductorStainless steel collars– use: to clamp conductors on tube supports– material: stainless steel.Tightening Ø Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)mm kg30 to 50 HCI2419 2CTH050001Z0000 – 20 0.01540 to 70 HCI2420 2CTH050003Z0000 – 20 0.02060 to 100 HCI2421 2CTHCHCI2421 – 1 0.025Lightning air terminal rangeConductor fastenersABB OPR lightning protection systems | 39Test joint– enables the disconnection of the conductors for insulation and earthing measurements– material: die-cast brass– no need to drill the conductors– accommodate Ø 6 and 8 mm round conductors and 30 x 2 or 30 x 3 mm flat conductors– guarantee perfect conductivity, low impedance– fixed by brackets with wood or metal screws, etc.– in accordance with NF C 17-102 standard.Description Dimensions Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm kgTest joint 70 x 50 x 20 JCH2708 2CTH0JCH2708 3660308522719 0.390Note: Down conductors have to overlap on the whole height of the test joint.Protecting flats and tubes– 2 m galvanized steel flats or tubes to protect the down conductors against mechanical impact– generally placed between the test joint and the ground– delivered complete with 3 clamps (bracket, wood screw).Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kgProtecting flat for strip (delivered by 2) TPH2705 2CTH0TPH2705 3660308522917 1.000Protecting tube for round conductor (delivered by 2) TPH2768 2CTH0TPH2768 3660308522924 1.000Inspection earth pit– used to house the test joint at ground level, the earth rod connections or earth interconnections– the 2CTH0RVH3073 and 2CTH0RVH3074 models are equipped with a copper bar enabling the interconnectionof 3 conductors or 2 conductors and a test joint.Description Dimensions Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm kg1 - Cast iron Ø ext. 190 RVH3071 2CTH0RVH3071 3660308522825 2.4002 - Yellow polyester concrete 350 x 250 RVH3072 2CTH0RVH3072 3660308522832 10.0003 - Yellow polyester concrete with earth bar 350 x 250 RVH3073 2CTH0RVH3073 3660308522849 10.0004 - Grey PVC with earth bar 300 x 300 RVH3074 2CTH0RVH3074 3660308522856 3.300Interconnection box for equipotential bonding– these boxes are fixed to the bottom of the down conductor and enable easy, accessible interconnectionand disconnection of the lightning earth termination system and the building's earth loop– they are made of a galvanized steel cover over a copper bar mounted on two insulators enabling the connectionof 2 conductors– delivered complete with wood screw brackets and earth identification labels.Description Dimensions Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm kgInterconnection box 150 x 65 x 65 BLH2707 2CTH0BLH2707 3660308522009 0.550Warning noticeDescription Dimensions Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm kgWarning notice 264 x 150 PSH2009 2CTH0PSH2009 3660308522757 0.010Lightning air terminal rangeEarth coupling accessories124340 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsOverviewEach down conductor in a lightning protection system must beconnected to an earth termination system designed to carryaway the lightning current. The earth termination system mustfulfil three indispensable conditions:– the earth termination resistance valueFrench and other international standards, as well as thetechnical requirements of a number of authorities stipulatean earth termination resistance value of less than 10 ohms.This value should be measured on the earth connectionisolated from any other conductive component.If the resistance value of 10 ohms cannot be achieved, theearth termination is nonetheless considered compliant if itis made up of at least 100 m of conductors or electrodes, each section measuring no more than 20 m (for level of protection2, 3 and 4) and 160 m (8 x 20 m) for level 1.– equipotential bondingStandards require the equipotential bonding of lightningearth termination system with the existing earthing systems.– inspection earth pitThe connection parts between lightning earth systemand electrical system test joint can be accessed by aninspection pit.General earth systemDuck's foot earth termination systemThe minimum earth termination system is made up of 25 m of30 x 2 mm tin-plated copper strip, split into 3 strands buried in3 trenches at a depth of 60 to 80 cm dug in a fan shape like aduck's foot: one end of the longest strand is connected to thetest joint, the two other strands being linked to a specialconnection known as a duck's foot connector.Standard list of materialDescription Type Order code EAN code Nb ofpcs or mDuck's foot connector RPO2840 2CTH0RPO2840 3660308522818 1 pcFlat conductor CPC2712 2CTH040003R0000 3660308523129 25 mNote: The earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning grid.Lightning air terminal rangeEarthing systemprotectionat30 x 2 mm strip3 m1 m from wall depth60 to 80 cm4 mstainlesssteel clampNB: the earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning gridDUCK'S FOOT SYSTEMFOR A MESHED CAGEduck'sfootconnectorprotectionat30 x 2 mm strip2 m1 m from wall depth60 to 80 cmstainless steelclampNB: the earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning grid 2 m rodearth rod clampROD TRIANGLE EARTHTERMINATION SYSTEM DUCK'S FOOT EARTH TERMINATIONSYSTEM WITH EARTH RODSprotectionat30 x 2 mm strip8 to 12 mdepth 6 to 9 m 60 to 80 cmduck'sfootconnectorstainlesssteel clampNB: the earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning gridrodearth rodclamp1 m from wallRod triangle earth termination systemWhen the site topography does not lend itself to the installationof a duck's foot as described above, an earth terminationsystem can be developed using at least 3 copper earth rodseach with a minimum length of 2 m, buried vertically in theground: the rods should be spaced at intervals of about 2 m andat a mandatory distance of 1 m to 1.5 m from the foundations.Standard list of materialRod systemDescription Type Order code EAN code Nb ofpcs or mDuck's foot connector RPO2840 2CTH0RPO2840 3660308522818 1 pcFlat conductor CPC2712 2CTH040003R0000 3660308523129 10 mSelf-extensible earth rod PVB2010 2CTHCPVB2010 3660308524379 6 pcsManual snap tool Ø 20 BMA0020 2CTH0BMA0020 3660308522030 1 pcEarth rod clamp CRH4020 2CTH0CRH4020 3660308522160 3 pcsNote: The earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning grid.Duck's foot earth termination system with earth rodsIf the soil type is not altogether suitable for a duck's foot connector, a combination of duck's foot and earth rods will significantlyenhance protection. In this case, the end of each duck'sfoot connector strand is connected to an earth rod.Standard list of materialRod systemDescription Type Order code EAN code Nb ofpcs or mDuck's foot connector RPO2840 2CTH0RPO2840 3660308522818 1 pcFlat conductor CPC2712 2CTH040003R0000 3660308523129 25 mStandard copper-bondrod, 2 mPCS1920 2CTHCPCS1920 3660308524249 3 pcsManual snap tool Ø 20 BMA0020 2CTH0BMA0020 3660308522030 1 pcEarth rod clamp CRH4020 2CTH0CRH4020 3660308522160 3 pcsNote: The earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning grid.These here before configurations cannot guarantee an earthresistance of 10 Ω in case of bad soil resistivity. The valuesobtained by these configurations depends of the soil resistivity.ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 41Earth rods– the use of a reusable treated steel snap tool is compulsory to protect the rod head when driving inDescription Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kg1 - Galvanized steel rod Ø 20 - L. 1 m PVB2010 2CTHCPVB2010 3660308524379 2.4002 - Standard copper-bond earth rod Ø 19 - L. 2.10 m PCS1920 2CTHCPCS1920 3660308524249 3.9403 - Manual snap tool Ø 20 BMA0020 2CTH0BMA0020 3660308522030 0.3004 - Earth rod clamp for 30 x 2 strip CRH4020 2CTH0CRH4020 3660308522160 0.150(1) 2CTHCPVB2010: high resistance steel tube hot galvanized.(2) 2CTHCPCS1920: high corrosion resistance due to a 250 µ thickness of electrolytically plated copper.(3) 2CTH0BMA0020: manual snap tool - one for 3 rods to be hammered in.Duck foot connectors– zinc-plated, die-cast brass parts enabling the connection of three of four strands of tin-plated copper30 x 2 mm conductor strip– variable strand angles– perfect electrical conductivity and strong tightening.Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kgDuck foot connector Ø 85 - thickness 30 mm RPO2840 2CTH0RPO2840 3660308522818 0.800Earth grids– earth grids are made of solid red copper with a mesh size of 115 x 40 mm.Thickness Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm kg3 Earth grid 0.66 x 0.92 m (4) GMD6692 2CTHCGMD6692 3660308523303 3.8003 Earth grid 1.00 x 2.00 m (5) GMD1020 2CTHCGMD1020 3660308523297 8.400(4) Equivalent to 18 m of Ø 8 mm round conductor.(5) Equivalent to 54 m of Ø 8 mm round conductor.Digital earth test set– battery-powered and watertight the 2CTHCACA6460 is a device that is easy to use and has been designedfor operation in the field– on all installations requiring the qualification of electrical or lightning earth termination system, using traditionalearth rod methods, the 2CTHCACA6460 measures the earth resistance and resistivity of the soil.Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kg1 - Digital earth and resistivity test set ACA6460 2CTHCACA6460 3660308523044 1.300Housing for test set with accessories (4 leads + 4 rods) ACA2025 2CTHCACA2025 3660308523006 6.000Lightning air terminal rangeEarthing system1 234142 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsABB OPR lightning protection systems | 43Antenna mast arrester– use: temporary grounding of an antenna mast in the event of lightning impact directly on the antenna– in normal circumstances, the arrester insulates the antenna from the earth, but also from the LightningProtection System in the event of a lightning strike on the LPS– the arrester can also be used to earth metallic structures such as pylons, motor chassis, roof equipment, etc.– characteristics:- dynamic excitation < 1800 V- static excitation voltage < 1100 V- nominal discharge current: 25 kA- dimensions: 280 x 45 x 30 mm- delivered complete with clamp for mast attachment.Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kgAntenna mast arrester EAH4005 2CTH0EAH4005 3660308522177 0.400Lightning stroke counter– this counter, which is connected in series to a lightning down conductor, records lightning current– this counter (1) uses the current induced in a secondary circuit to activate an electromechanical counter. Ithas been tested in High Voltage laboratories and in situ– Counter (1 and 2) equipped with an external dry contact when lightning current flow through it.Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kg1 - Lightning stroke counter with a flat conductor connection CCF2005 2CTH060001R0000 3660308521279 0.4102 - Lightning stroke counter and recorder CIF2006 2CTH0CIF2006 3660308522146 0.3403 - Lightning stroke LCD counter fit directly on round or flat conductor CCF2006 2CTH060002R0000 3660308524744 0.1OPR test kitOPR lightning air terminal testing kit– the testing kit needs a contact with the OPR tip in one hand, and the bottom of the pole or the downconductor in the other hand– it tests the OPR electronics by activating the high-voltage internal circuit of the OPR.Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kg4 - ESE pole test PMH8000 2CTH080004R0000 3660308522740 6.0005 - ESE test system VDT0001 2CTH080001R0000 3660308521309 1.900Lightning air terminal rangeEquipotential bonding2415344 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsMeshed conductorsTypical installationFlat or round conductorconnectionp.36Hooksp.37Test couplingp.39Equipotential boxp.39Lightning stroke counter(every 4 down conductor)p.43Conductorsupporting studp.37Fixture accessoriesfor air terminalsp.45 Air terminalp.45Ruberalu bracketsp.37Protecting flatp.39Earth rods with clampsp.41Earth rod clampp.41Type 1 surge protective devicehighly recommendedABB OPR lightning protection systems | 45Air terminalMeshed cage air terminals are designed for easy, rapid installation on a wide range of structures.They are made up of:– a cylindrical (Ø 18 mm) bright nickel-plated copper cylinder tapered at the top and with a threaded lowersection– a bright tapped nickel-plated brass base M 10 for the connection and intersection of flat or round conductors.They are adaptable to all fixtures shown below.Length Material Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)m kg0.50 Nickel copper HPC5000 2CTH0HPC5000 3660308522603 1.500Fixture accessories for air terminalsVertical mounting– material: tin-plated or galvanized steel.Length Hole Ø Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)cm mm kg10 16 1 - To bed SSH5001 2CTHCSSH5001 – 0.12016 8 2 - To bold STH5002 2CTHCSTH5002 3660308524423 0.07013 10 3 - S/Steel threaded base EFH5003 2CTH0EFH5003 3660308522184 0.100Supporting plates– material: stainless steel– fixing: 2x Ø 10 mm bolt holes (centerline distance 93 mm).Length x width Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm kg50 x 50 1 - Flat plate PM PSH5002 2CTH0PSH5002 3660308522795 0.100120 x 50 Flat plate GM PSH5004 2CTH0PSH5004 3660308522801 0.200120 x 50 2 - Swivelling plate SOH5006 2CTH0SOH5006 3660308522863 0.460250 x 120 3 - Roof ridge plate PFH5000 2CTH0PFH5000 3660308522733 0.500Offset plate– material: galvanized steel– fixing: by M8 screw.Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kg15 cm offset plate PDH5015 2CTHCPDH5015 3660308524263 0.200Adaptor sleeve– use: to fix air terminals to existing supports (max. Ø 50 mm)– material: stainless steel.Max. tightening length L Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm kg100 HMA5010 2CTH0HMA5010 3660308522566 0.400Meshed conductorsAccessories1 233 1246 | ABB OPR lightning protection systems2CTB899800R7000 IMH3000 282CTB899800R7100 IMH6000 282CTB899800R7500 IMH4500 282CTH010001R0000 HPI3001 292CTH010002R0000 HPI3002 292CTH010004R0000 PTS3000 292CTH040001R0000 CPC0025 362CTH040002R0000 CPC0050 362CTH040003R0000 CPC2712 362CTH040005R0000 CRC8000 362CTH040006R0000 CRC8001 362CTH050001Z0000 HCI2419 382CTH050003Z0000 HCI2420 382CTH050011Z0000 HRP0100 372CTH050012Z0000 HRP0500 372CTH050013R0000 CDH5001 332CTH050014R0000 CDV5001 332CTH050015R0000 PBC0125 332CTH050016R0000 PBL0290 332CTH050018R0000 PDV0190 332CTH050020R0000 CCC6001 332CTH050021R0000 CCT5001 332CTH050022R0000 FHF0001 322CTH050023Z0000 FDV5625 322CTH050026R0000 KFR3542 312CTH050027R0000 KFP0035 312CTH050028R0000 KFR0050 312CTH050030Z0000 CPB3020 372CTH050031Z0000 CIP3020 372CTH050032Z0000 CMA3020 372CTH050033R0000 HEF2107 352CTH050034R0000 HEF2313 352CTH060001R0000 CCF2005 432CTH060002R0000 CCF2006 432CTH070001R0000 MAT3001 312CTH070002R0000 MAT3002 312CTH070005R0000 RAL3502 312CTH070006R0000 RAL3503 312CTH070007R0000 RAL4202 312CTH070008R0000 RAL4203 312CTH070009R0000 RAL5002 312CTH070010R0000 RAL5003 312CTH070011R0000 MAT3503 312CTH080001R0000 VDT0001 432CTH080004R0000 PMH8000 432CTH0BLH2707 BLH2707 392CTH0BMA0020 BMA0020 402CTH0BRC2780 BRC2780 362CTH0BRC2781 BRC2781 362CTH0BRH2779 BRH2779 362CTH0BRI2779 BRI2779 362CTH0BRX3780 BRX3780 362CTH0CIF2006 CIF2006 432CTH0CRH4020 CRH4020 402CTH0EAH4005 EAH4005 432CTH0EFH5003 EFH5003 452CTH0FDT0045 FDT0045 382CTH0FDT0046 FDT0046 382CTH0HAA2673 HAA2673 372CTH0HAR2645 HAR2645 382CTH0HAR2646 HAR2646 382CTH0HAR2745 HAR2745 372CTH0HAR2746 HAR2746 372CTH0HAR2845 HAR2845 382CTH0HAR2846 HAR2846 382CTH0HBR2717 HBR2717 372CTH0HCB4240 HCB4240 372CTH0HCL2642 HCL2642 372CTH0HCP2651 HCP2651 332CTH0HIS6000 HIS6000 382CTH0HMA5010 HMA5010 452CTH0HPC5000 HPC5000 452CTH0HPP4523 HPP4523 352CTH0HPS0010 HPS0010 332CTH0HPS2630 HPS2630 342CTH0HRI3501 HRI3501 342CTH0HST2044 HST2044 352CTH0JCH2708 JCH2708 392CTH0PFH5000 PFH5000 452CTH0PSH2009 PSH2009 392CTH0PSH5002 PSH5002 452CTH0PSH5004 PSH5004 452CTH0RPO2840 RPO2840 402CTH0RVH3071 RVH3071 392CTH0RVH3072 RVH3072 392CTH0RVH3073 RVH3073 392CTH0RVH3074 RVH3074 392CTH0SOH5006 SOH5006 452CTH0STP5030 STP5030 362CTH0STP5050 STP5050 362CTH0STP5075 STP5075 362CTH0STP5100 STP5100 362CTH0TPH2705 TPH2705 392CTH0TPH2768 TPH2768 392CTHCACA2025 ACA2025 412CTHCACA6460 ACA6460 412CTHCBRP2680 BRP2680 362CTHCCPG3035 CPG3035 362CTHCCPI2711 CPI2711 362CTHCCRE2700 CRE2700 352CTHCGMD1020 GMD1020 412CTHCGMD6692 GMD6692 412CTHCHAR2445 HAR2445 382CTHCHCI2421 HCI2421 382CTHCHCO0071 HCO0071 322CTHCHCO0752 HCO0752 322CTHCHFC4002 HFC4002 332CTHCHFP2650 HFP2650 332CTHCHPA0109 322CTHCHPA0112 322CTHCHPA0115 322CTHCHPA0118 322CTHCHPA0209 322CTHCHPA0212 322CTHCHPA0215 322CTHCHPA0218 322CTHCHPA0309 322CTHCHPA0312 322CTHCHPA0315 322CTHCHPA0318 322CTHCHPA0409 322CTHCHPA0412 322CTHCHPA0415 322CTHCHPA0418 322CTHCHPB2772 HPB2772 372CTHCHPV2771 HPV2771 372CTHCPCS1920 PCS1920 402CTHCPDH5015 PDH5015 452CTHCPRC8000 PRC8000 362CTHCPVB2010 PVB2010 402CTHCSCP3000 SCP3000 382CTHCSSH5001 SSH5001 452CTHCSTH5002 STH5002 452CTHCTLB5002 TLB5002 352CTHCTLB5004 TLB5004 352CTHCTLB5005 TLB5005 352CTHCTSH4525 TSH4525 35IndexOrder code classificationOrder code Type Page Order code Type Page Order code Type PageABB OPR lightning protection systems | 47ACA2025 2CTHCACA2025 41ACA6460 2CTHCACA6460 41BLH2707 2CTH0BLH2707 39BMA0020 2CTH0BMA0020 40BRC2780 2CTH0BRC2780 36BRC2781 2CTH0BRC2781 36BRH2779 2CTH0BRH2779 36BRI2779 2CTH0BRI2779 36BRP2680 2CTHCBRP2680 36BRX3780 2CTH0BRX3780 36CCC6001 2CTH050020R0000 33CCF2005 2CTH060001R0000 43CCF2006 2CTH060002R0000 43CCT5001 2CTH050021R0000 33CDH5001 2CTH050013R0000 33CDV5001 2CTH050014R0000 33CIF2006 2CTH0CIF2006 43CIP3020 2CTH050031Z0000 37CMA3020 2CTH050032Z0000 37CPB3020 2CTH050030Z0000 37CPC0025 2CTH040001R0000 36CPC0050 2CTH040002R0000 36CPC2712 2CTH040003R0000 36CPG3035 2CTHCCPG3035 36CPI2711 2CTHCCPI2711 36CRC8000 2CTH040005R0000 36CRC8001 2CTH040006R0000 36CRE2700 2CTHCCRE2700 35CRH4020 2CTH0CRH4020 40EAH4005 2CTH0EAH4005 43EFH5003 2CTH0EFH5003 45FDT0045 2CTH0FDT0045 38FDT0046 2CTH0FDT0046 38FDV5625 2CTH050023Z0000 32FHF0001 2CTH050022R0000 32GMD1020 2CTHCGMD1020 41GMD6692 2CTHCGMD6692 41HAA2673 2CTH0HAA2673 37HAR2445 2CTHCHAR2445 38HAR2645 2CTH0HAR2645 38HAR2646 2CTH0HAR2646 38HAR2745 2CTH0HAR2745 37HAR2746 2CTH0HAR2746 37HAR2845 2CTH0HAR2845 38HAR2846 2CTH0HAR2846 38HBR2717 2CTH0HBR2717 37HCB4240 2CTH0HCB4240 37HCI2419 2CTH050001Z0000 38HCI2420 2CTH050003Z0000 38HCI2421 2CTHCHCI2421 38HCL2642 2CTH0HCL2642 37HCO0071 2CTHCHCO0071 32HCO0752 2CTHCHCO0752 32HCP2651 2CTH0HCP2651 33HEF2107 2CTH050033R0000 35HEF2313 2CTH050034R0000 35HFC4002 2CTHCHFC4002 33HFP2650 2CTHCHFP2650 33HIS6000 2CTH0HIS6000 38HMA5010 2CTH0HMA5010 45HPB2772 2CTHCHPB2772 37HPC5000 2CTH0HPC5000 45HPI3001 2CTH010001R0000 29HPI3002 2CTH010002R0000 29HPP4523 2CTH0HPP4523 35HPS0010 2CTH0HPS0010 33HPS2630 2CTH0HPS2630 34HPV2771 2CTHCHPV2771 37HRI3501 2CTH0HRI3501 34HRP0100 2CTH050011Z0000 37HRP0500 2CTH050012Z0000 37HST2044 2CTH0HST2044 35IMH3000 2CTB899800R7000 28IMH4500 2CTB899800R7500 28IMH6000 2CTB899800R7100 28JCH2708 2CTH0JCH2708 39KFP0035 2CTH050027R0000 31KFR0050 2CTH050028R0000 31KFR3542 2CTH050026R0000 31MAT3001 2CTH070001R0000 31MAT3002 2CTH070002R0000 31MAT3503 2CTH070011R0000 31PBC0125 2CTH050015R0000 33PBL0290 2CTH050016R0000 33PCS1920 2CTHCPCS1920 40PDH5015 2CTHCPDH5015 45PDV0190 2CTH050018R0000 33PFH5000 2CTH0PFH5000 45PMH8000 2CTH080004R0000 43PRC8000 2CTHCPRC8000 36PSH2009 2CTH0PSH2009 39PSH5002 2CTH0PSH5002 45PSH5004 2CTH0PSH5004 45PTS3000 2CTH010004R0000 29PVB2010 2CTHCPVB2010 40RAL3502 2CTH070005R0000 31RAL3503 2CTH070006R0000 31RAL4202 2CTH070007R0000 31RAL4203 2CTH070008R0000 31RAL5002 2CTH070009R0000 31RAL5003 2CTH070010R0000 31RPO2840 2CTH0RPO2840 40RVH3071 2CTH0RVH3071 39RVH3072 2CTH0RVH3072 39RVH3073 2CTH0RVH3073 39RVH3074 2CTH0RVH3074 39SCP3000 2CTHCSCP3000 38SOH5006 2CTH0SOH5006 45SSH5001 2CTHCSSH5001 45STH5002 2CTHCSTH5002 45STP5030 2CTH0STP5030 36STP5050 2CTH0STP5050 36STP5075 2CTH0STP5075 36STP5100 2CTH0STP5100 36TLB5002 2CTHCTLB5002 35TLB5004 2CTHCTLB5004 35TLB5005 2CTHCTLB5005 35TPH2705 2CTH0TPH2705 39TPH2768 2CTH0TPH2768 39TSH4525 2CTHCTSH4525 35VDT0001 2CTH080001R0000 432CTHCHPA0109 322CTHCHPA0112 322CTHCHPA0115 322CTHCHPA0118 322CTHCHPA0209 322CTHCHPA0212 322CTHCHPA0215 322CTHCHPA0218 322CTHCHPA0309 322CTHCHPA0312 322CTHCHPA0315 322CTHCHPA0318 322CTHCHPA0409 322CTHCHPA0412 322CTHCHPA0415 322CTHCHPA0418 32IndexType classificationType Order code Page Type Order code Page Type Order code Page48 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsBrochureLightning protection systemPulsar range1TXH000084B0204hélita® lightning protection systemsPulsar®range1TXH 000 084 B0202_Pulsar-Lightning-Protection_Version ABB.indd 1 25/11/2011 10:21:33Pararrayos hélita®Gama Pulsar®1TXH 000 084 B0702_Pararrayos-Pulsar_Version ABB.indd 1 04/10/2011 07:54:45BrochureLightning protection systemSpanish version1TXH000084B0703BrochureLightning protection systemEarly streamer emission air terminal1TXH000134B0205Marketing toolsCatalogs and brochuresMain catalogSystem pro M compact®Surge and lightning protection solutions1TXH000083C0203Main catalogueSystem pro M compact®Surge and lightning protection solutionsABB solutions for photovoltaicsProtection and other modular devicesBrochureABB solutions for photovoltaicsProtection and other modular devices2CDC002093B0201Technical catalogSystem pro M compact®DIN Rail components for low voltage installation2CSC400002D0212BrochureContact us1TXH 000 045 B0202 - Printed in France (V 12.2010 Lamazière)Autoprotected surge arrestersNew OVR PLUS range1TXH 000 045 B0202 - Autoprotected Surge Arresters.indd 7 10/12/2010 12:18:30BrochureLightning and overvoltage protectionWater treatment plants1TXH000444B0201BrochureAutoprotected surge arrestersNew OVR PLUS range1TXH000045B0203BrochureEarthing, lightning and overvoltage protectionWind turbines1TXH000215B0201ABB solutions for photovoltaicsProtection and other modular devicesEarthing, lightning and overvoltageprotectionWind turbines1TXH000215B0201_Wind turbines.indd 1 28/01/2013 15:23:10ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 49ABB FranceLightning Protection GroupDepending where we live, we are not all equal in front of the risk of lightning.For example there is more than 2 million lightning strokes per year on the French territory.They constitute a real risk for all humans and building structures.ABB as lightning protection specialist can offer you a range of lighting air terminals (simplerod or early streamer emission system OPR) in order to protect your facilities and personnel.All these products are developed by the ABB centre of excellence for lightning based inBagnères de Bigorre - France; they are tested in laboratory as well as in situ to recreatenatural conditions in the Pic du Midi (French Pyrenees).Lightning protection specialists?Absolutely.1TXH000247C0203 - Printed in France (06.2016 PDF)NoteWe reserve the right to make technical changes ormodify the contents of this document without priornotice.ABB does not accept any responsibility whatsoeverfor potential errors or possible lack of information inthis document.We reserve all rights in this document and in thesubject matter and illustrations contained therein.Any reproduction, disclosure to third parties orutilization of its contents – in whole or in parts – isforbidden without prior written consent of ABB.Copyright© 2016 ABB - All rights reservedContact usABB FranceElectrification Products DivisionPôle Foudre Soulé & Hélita1, avenue des Victimes du 11 juin 1944BP 303F-65203 Bagnères-de-Bigorre / FranceTel. : +33 (0)5 62 91 45 60Fax : +33 (0)5 62 91 45 62You can find the address of your local sales organisationon the ABB home 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OPR lightning protection systemsExternal lightning protectionMain catalogABB OPR lightning protection systems | 1Lightning mechanism and location 2Lightning protection technologies 3Lightning protection risk analysis 8Lightning protection technical study 9Procedure for measuring the Early Streamer Emission of an ESEair terminal according to standard NF C 17-102 appendix C 10Tests and research 12Lightning capture devices 14Down conductors 16Equipotential bonding 19Earth termination systems 21Inspection ESEAT maintenance 23Lightning air terminal rangeESEAT typical installation 24OPR, the high pulse voltage, initiation advance lightningair terminal 26Early Streamer Emission Air Terminal - ESEAT 27Single Rod Air Terminal - SRAT 29Extension masts 30Masts and extension masts 31Pylons 32Lateral fixations 33Roof fixing accessories 35Conductors and coupling accessories 36Conductor fasteners 37Earth coupling accessories 39Earthing system 40Equipotential bonding 43Meshed conductorsTypical installation 44Accessories 45Index 46OPR lightning protection systemsExternal lightning protection1TXH000247C0203 - Edition June 20162 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsLightning mechanism and locationStormsThe presence of unstable, moist and warm air masses givesrise to the formation of cumulonimbus storm clouds. This typeof cloud is very extensive, both horizontally (about 10 km indiameter) and vertically (up to 15 km). Its highly characteristicshape is often compared with the profile of an anvil of whichit displays the upper and lower horizontal planes. The existenceof extreme temperature gradients in a cumulonimbus(the temperature can drop to -65 °C at the top) generatesvery rapid ascending air currents, and results in the electricalenergisation of the water particles.In a typical storm cloud, the upper part, consisting of icecrystals, is normally positively charged, whilst the lower part, consisting of water droplets, is negatively charged. Consequently, the lower part of the cloud causes the developmentof electrically opposite charges (i.e. positive over the part ofthe ground nearby).Thus the cumulonimbus formation constitutes a sort of hugeplate /ground capacitor whose median distance can oftenreach 1 to 2 km. The atmospheric electrical field on theground, about 600 V/m in fine weather is reversed and canreach an absolute value of 15 to 20 kV/m when a grounddischarge is imminent (the lightning stroke).Before and during the appearance of the lightning stroke, discharges can be seen both within the cloud and betweenclouds.LightningAccording to the direction in which the electrical dischargedevelops (downward or upward), and the polarity of thecharges it develops (negative or positive), four classes ofcloud-to-ground lightning stroke can be distinguished. Inpractice, lightning strokes of the descending and negativetype are by far the most frequent: it is estimated that on plainsand in our temperate zones, they account for 96 % of allcloud / ground discharges.Mechanism of a lightning strokeIt is impossible to discern the individual phases of the lightningstroke by simple visual observation. This can only bedone with high-speed cameras. Most lightning bolts exhibitthe following phenomena: a leader leaves a point in thecloud and travels about 50 m at a very high speed of around50 000 km/s. A second leader then leaves the same point, follows the previous path at comparable speed, goes beyondthe final point of the first leader by an approximately identicaldistance, then disappears in turn.The process is repeated until the tip of the last leader reachesa point a few dozen metres, or even just a few metres aboveground level.The ascending jets then converge, producing a return strokefrom the ground towards the cloud (the upward streamer) duringwhich the electric current circulates: The convergence ofthese two phenomena produces the main discharge, whichmay be followed by a series of secondary discharges, passingunbroken along the channel ionised by the main discharge.In an average negative lightning stroke, the maximum currentis around 35 000 A.----------- - - -+++ ++++ + ++++++++++ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 3Lightning protection technologiesThe effects of lightningThe effects of lightning are those of a high-strength impulsecurrent that propagates initially in a gaseous environment (theatmosphere), and then in a solid, more or less conductivemedium (the ground):– visual effects (flash): caused by the Townsend avalanchemechanism– acoustic effects: caused by the propagation of a shockwave (rise in pressure) originating in the discharge path;this effect is perceptible up to a range of around 10 km– thermal effect: heat generated by the Joule effect in theionised channel– electrodynamic effects: these are the mechanical forces appliedto the conductors placed in a magnetic field createdby the high voltage circulation. They may result in deformations– electrochemical effects: these relatively minor effects areconveyed in the form of electrolytic decomposition throughthe application of Faraday's law– induction effects: in a variable electroma-gnetic field, everyconductor harnesses induced current– effects on a living being (human or animal): the passage ofa transient current of a certain r.m.s value is sufficient toincur risks of electrocution by heart attack or respiratoryfailure, together with the risk of burns.Lightning causes two major types of accidents:– accidents caused by a direct stroke when the lightningstrikes a building or a specific zone. This can cause considerabledamage, usually by fire. Protection against thisdanger is provided by lightning air terminal systems– accidents caused indirectly, as when the lightning strikes orcauses power surges in power cables or transmission links.Hence the need to protect with SPD the equipment at riskagainst the surge voltage and indirect currents generated.Protection against direct lightning strokeTo protect a structure against lightning strokes, a preferredimpact point is selected to protect the surrounding structureand conduct the flow of the electric current towards theground, with minimal impedance on the path followed bythe lightning. Four types of protection systems meet theserequirements.Protection systems StandardsEarly streamer emission air terminal - France: NF C 17-102 (September 2011 edition)- Argentina: IRAM 2426- Spain: UNE 21186- Macedonia: MKS N.B4 810- Portugal: NP 4426- Romania: I-20- Slovakia: STN 34 1391- Serbia: JUS N.B4.810Single rods air terminals IEC 62 305-3Meshed cages IEC 62 305-3Stretched wires IEC 62 305-34 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsLightning protection system with early streamer emissionair terminal (ESEAT)These state-of-the-art technologies have been designed onthe basis of a series of patents registered jointly by HELITAand the French National Scientific Research Centre (CNRS).The OPR is equipped with an electronic device which is highpulse voltage of known and controlled frequency and amplitudeenabling the early formation of the upward leader which isthen continuously propagated towards the downward leader.This anticipation in the upward leader formation is essentialwith regard to the last scientific knowledge on the lightningattachment that acknowledge the fact that this one resultsfrom an upward leader competition. Today the upward leadercompetition is internationally recognized thanks to high speedcameras pictures of this phenomenon of attachment and to itsdigital simulation.The OPR draws its energy from the ambient electrical fieldduring the storm. After capturing the lightning stroke, the OPRdirects it towards the down conductors to the ground where itis dissipated.Triggering time of an ESEAT1 2Lightning protection technologiesABB OPR lightning protection systems | 5The early streamer emission (ESE) conceptDuring a storm, when the propagation field conditions arefavourable, the OPR first generates an upward leader. Thisleader from the OPR tip propagates towards the downwardleader from the cloud at an average speed of 1 m/µs.The triggering time ∆T (µs) is defined as the mean gain atthe sparkover instant (continuous propagation of the upwardleader) obtained with an ESE air terminal compared with asingle rod air terminal exposed to the same conditions. ∆T ismeasured in the high-voltage laboratory, all tests are definedin appendix C of the French standard NF C 17-102.The triggering time instance gain ∆T is associated with atriggering time distance gain ∆L.∆L = v. ∆T, where:– ∆L (m): gain in lead distance or sparkover distance– v (m/µs): average speed of the downward tracer (1 m/µs).– ∆T (µs): gain in sparkover time of the upward leadermeasured in laboratory conditions.OPR air terminals are especially effective for the protectionof classified industrial sites, administrative or public buildings, historical monuments and open-air sites such as sportsgrounds.Lightning protection technologies6 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsLightning protection technologiesLightning protection system with meshed cagesThis principle consists of dividing up and more easily dissipating thelightning current by a network of conductors and earths.A meshed cage installation has multiple down conductors andconsequently provides very effective protection for buildingsthat house equipment sensitive to electromagnetic disturbance.This is because the lightning current is divided among the downconductors and the low current circulating in the mesh creates verylittle disturbance by induction.A meshed cage installation is made up of:– devices to capture the atmospheric discharges consisting ofstrike points– roof conductors– down conductors– protection measures against injuries to leaving being due totouch and step voltages (e.g. warning notice)– an equipotential bonding between each earth and the generalearthing circuit of the structure; this one must be disconnectable.Installation conditionsLightning Protection System with an ESEAT is made of:– an Early Streamer Emission Air Terminal and its extension mast– two down conductors, or in case of several ESEAT oneconductor per ESEAT– a connecting link or test joint for each down conductor toenabling the earth resistance to be verified– a protecting flat to protect the down conductor for the last twometers above ground level– an earth designed to dissipate the lightning currents at thebottom of each down conductor– an equipotential bonding between each earth and the generalearthing circuit of the structure; this one must be disconnectable– protection measures against injuries to leaving being due totouch and step voltages (e.g. warning notice).Lightning protection system with single rod air terminalBy protruding upwards from the building, they are likely to triggerthe release of ascending streamers and thus be selected asimpact points by lightning strokes occurring within the vicinity of thestructure.This type of protection is especially recommended for radio stationsand antenna masts when the area requiring protection is relativelysmall.A single rod air terminal protection is made up of:– a rod lightning air terminal and its extension mast– two down conductors– a connection link or test joint on each down conductor to checkthe conductor earth resistance– a protecting flat to protect the down conductor for the last twometers above ground level– an equipotential bonding between each earth and the generalearthing circuit of the structure; this one must be disconnectable– protection measures against injuries to leaving being due totouch and step voltages (eg warning notice).ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 7Lightning protection technologiesStretched wiresThis system is composed of one or several conductor wiresstretched above the protected installation. The protection area isdetermined by applying the electro-geometrical model.The conductors must be earthed at each end.A stretched wire installation requires a thorough preliminary studyto consider issues such as mechanical strength, the type ofinstallation, and the insulation distances.This technology is used to protect ammunition depots and as ageneral rule in circumstances where the site cannot be protectedby using a building structure to support the conductors thatconvey the lightning currents to the earth.Protection against indirect lightning stroke effectsWhen lightning strikes cables and transmission lines (H.F. coaxialcables, telecommunication lines, power cables), a voltage surgeis propagated and may reach equipment in the surrounding. Thisvoltage surge can also be generated by induction due to theelectromagnetic radiation of the lightning flash.This can have many consequences: premature componentageing, destruction of printed circuit boards or component plating, equipment failure, data loss, programs hanging, line damage, etc. This is why you need to use Surge Protective Devices toprotect equipment liable to be affected by lightning strikes.The use of Surge Protective Devices is highly recommendedwhen the building is fitted with an external lightning protection. Atype 1 SPD is highly recommended or even mandatory in somecountries. A good protection is made in step with one type 1 fittedin the MDB when the SDB are fitted with type 2 SPDs.Early Streamer EmissionAir TerminalMDBSDB - SubDistribution BoardSDBTelephone inputMainpower inputMDB - MainDistribution BoardTelecomboardEquipotential bonding of metal partsDuring a lightning stroke or even as a result of indirect effects, equipotential bonding defects can, by differences in potential, generate sparkover causing risk for human being or fire into thestructure.This is why it is an essential part of effective lightning protection toensure that a site's equipotential bonding is effective and in goodcondition.The necessity of an electrical insulation between the air terminationor the down-conductor and the structural metal parts, themetal installations and the internal systems can be achieved byproviding a separation distance "s" between the parts. 8 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsLightning protection risk analysisRisk analysisAll lightning protection standards recommend a preliminarylightning risk analysis in three parts:– lightning risk evaluation– protection level selection– protection device definition.We have developed a software based on the calculations ofthe IEC 62305-2 or NF C 17-102 (appendix A) in order to giveyou an easy and accurate solution regarding the risk analysisof any installation you wish to protect.Lightning flash density map (flashes per km² per year)Protection device definitionIt is advisable to take into account the technical and architecturalconstraints when configuring the different components ofthe protection device.To facilitate your preliminary studies, we will provide a questionnairein which the minimum required information can beentered, and a calculation software package. 2 < Ng < 8 8 < Ng < 18ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 9Lightning protection technical studyOPR Designer softwareABB is happy to provide you with a complete new software in the field of lightningprotection.With a very simple approach you can create your technical study in one click!You can either draw, import file (AutoCAD, pictures…)and from that point get a complete bill of material(air terminals, down conductors, fixing accessoriesand earthing system), the positioning of the lightningprotection system on the structure.The solution is given in a complete pdf file that includes :– protected areas– lightning air terminals positioning– complete bill of material– detailed bill of material per building– catalogue pages for each component– test certificatesThis software is so far available in English, French, Spanish, Russian and Lithuanian version.You may download OPR designer at the following address :http://www.web-emedia.com/opr/10 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsProcedure for measuring the Early Streamer Emission of an ESEair terminal according to standard NF C 17-102 appendix CThis test procedure consists in evaluating the triggering timeof an Early Streamer Emission (ESEAT) compared with thereference Single Rod Air Terminal (SRAT) in high voltage laboratoryconditions. 50 shocks are applied to the single rod air terminalin the first configuration, then to the early streamer emission airterminal in a second configuration.Simulation of natural conditionsNatural conditions can be simulated in a laboratory by superimposinga permanent field and an impulse field associated with a plate /ground platform area (H). The tested lightning air terminal is placedon the ground, beneath the centre of this platform. In the experiment, the height H = 6 m, and the lightning air terminal heighth = 1.5 m.Electrical conditionsThe permanent field caused by the charge distribution in thecloud is represented by a negative DC voltage of -20 to -25 kV/m(simulating a negative field of around -20 to -25 kV/m) applied tothe upper plate. The impulse field caused by the approach of thedownload leader is simulated with a negative polarity wave appliedto the platform. The rise time of the wave Tm is 650 µs. The wavegradient, at the significant points is around 109 V/m/s.Geometrical conditionsThe volume used for the experiment must be large enough to allowthe ascending discharge to develop freely:– distance d between upper platform and tip ≥ 1 m– upper plate diameter ≥ distance from upper plate to ground.The lightning air terminal are tested in sequence in strictly identicalgeometrical conditions same height, same location, same distancebetween tip and upper platform.ESE air terminals triggering time calculationGeneral conditions– number of shocks: around 50 per configuration (sufficient for anaccurate analysis of the leader /Leader transition)– interval between shocks: the same for each configuration equalto 2 min.Recording– triggering time (TB): obtained directly by reading the data fromthe diagnostic equipment. This data is not characteristic, butit does enable a simple reading to establish whether or not ashock can yield a valid result– light emitted by the leader at the lightning air terminal tip (photomultipliers):this data provides a very accurate detection of theleader continuous propagation instant– pre-discharge current (coaxial shunt): the resulting curves confirmthe previous diagnostic data– space-time development of the discharge (image converter): theimage converter pictures provide a further means of analysingthe results.SRATLABORATORY EARTHdhHPLATEdhHESEATLABORATORY EARTHPLATEIREQ Laboratory (Canada - 2000)Other recordings and measurements– short-circuit current (coaxial shunt)– time/voltage characteristics for several shocks– rod to plate distance before and after each configuration– climatic parameters must be maintain for the 2 configurations :- pressure ±2 %- temperature ±10 %- relative humidity ±20 %.Triggering picture of a SRAT witha rotative high speed camera.Triggering picture of an ESEAT witha rotative high speed camera.ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 11Procedure for measuring the Early Streamer Emission of an ESEair terminal according to standard NF C 17-102 appendix CProcedure for measuring the Early Streamer Emission of an ESEair terminal according to standard NF C 17-102 appendix CT TESEATTSRAT t(µs)EESEATESRATEM expreference wavemeasuring waveDetermination of the early streamer emission of the ESEATThe triggering time instants, or continuous propagationinstants of the upward leader are obtained by analysing thediagnostic data described above. The mean is then calculatedfor each lightning air terminal tested, and the differencebetween the mean values is the ESE lightning air terminaltriggering time.T= TSRAT - TESEATABB lightning protection group has unique know-how andexperience in this field.Since 1996, we have generated more than 40 000 sparksusing this test procedure in the following high voltagelaboratories:– SIAME Laboratory - PAU UNIVERSITY (France)– Bazet VHV Laboratory - SEDIVER (France)– Volta HV Laboratory - MERLIN GERIN (France)– L.G.E.Les Renardières - ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE– Bagnères de Bigorre HV Laboratory - LEHTM (France)– Varennes IREQ Laboratory (Canada)– Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute - KERI (Korea)– WHVRI - Wuhan High Voltage Research Institute (China)– Beijing testing center surge protective devices (China).12 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsTests and researchObjectivesABB Lightning Protection Group has been investing for manyyears in research into lightning air terminal protection devices, and is constantly striving to enhance the performance of itsproducts.ABB's ongoing in situ research in France and abroad has threemain objectives:– to enhance the protection models– to measure in situ the effectiveness of ESEAT, alreadyevaluated in laboratory conditions– to qualify the dimensioning of the equipment in real-lifelightning strike conditions.Tests under Laboratory conditionsSince 2003 our factory located in Bagnères de Bigorre(France) has a high tech laboratory allowing to test our SurgeProtective Devices in 10/350 µs and 8/20 µs wave shapes aswell as our direct lightning range with lightning currents up to100 kA.We also test our lighting rods in a dedicated high voltagelaboratory close to our factory allowing normative tests thanksto an up to 3 MV generator.Tests in situsAn experimental site devoted to the study of direct lightningimpacts to a lightning protection system has been selected atthe top of the "Pic du Midi" in the French Pyrenées mountainsfor its high lightning impact density (30 days of storm peryear).The "Pic du Midi", famous astronomical observatory, offersan unique scientific environment for lightning observations incollaboration with astronomers.Purpose of the experiments:– to confirm the triggering time of ESEAT compared to singlerod air terminals– to direct the flow of the lightning currents captured by thelightning air terminal to low-voltage surge arresters via anappropriate earthing network– to test the resistance of the equipment to lightning shocksand climatological constraints.ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 13In situ tests at the Pic du Midi de BigorreThis unique location enables us to test our products in highlysevere conditions (high winds, extremely low temperatures) asthese tests are running at an altitude of 2880 m.Such tests give us the opportunity to complete ourunderstanding on lightning phenomenon. For this purpose, weare using high speed cameras, lightning current recorders aswell as field and light recorders.Another in situ test runs at the Taoulet station 2300 m to verifythat theoretical values announced are also validated in realconditions.A constant partnership with scientists permits to follow thesein situs sites and lead to fundamental research on lighting. Asan application example, a software that determines the weakpoints of a structure has been developed.Natural lightning experimental site– Located in the Hautes Pyrénées department of France– Keraunic level: 30 days of storms per annum.Experimental artificial lightning triggering sitesBecause lightning is a randomly occurring naturalphenomenon, artificial triggering techniques have beendeveloped to speed up the research process.When lightning conditions are prevalent the triggeringtechnique consists in sending a rocket with a trailing wire inthe direction of the storm clouds to cause a lightning strike atthe experimental site.The wire may comprise an insulating section in order togenerate the largest possible number of lightning strikes forexperimental purposes.– Site located at Privat d'Allier in Auvergne, FranceKeraunic level: 30Purpose of the experiments:- to qualify the lightning strike counters and- low-voltage arresters in situ- to qualify the resistance of the equipment to- triggered lightning strikes.– Site located at Camp Blanding (Florida/USA)Keraunic level: 80Purpose of the experiments:- to confirm the triggering time gain of the ESE air terminalscompared with single rod air terminals- to collect data with a view to improving the protectionmodels.Tests and research14 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsLightning capture devicesLightning air terminalsEarly Streamer Emission Air Terminals (ESEAT) or SingleRod Air Terminals (SRAT).As a general rule, the lightning air terminal should culminate atleast two metres above the highest points of the building(s) tobe protected.Its location should therefore be determined relative to buildingsuperstructures: chimneys, machine and equipment rooms, flagpoles, pylons or aerials. Ideally, these vulnerable pointsshould be selected for lightning air terminal installation.The lightning air terminal may be raised by an extension mast.Our stainless steel interlocking extension masts can reachan overall height of 8.50 or 11 m including the lightning airterminal height. They have been specially designed to obviatethe need for guying. However, if guying is essential (e.g. whenthe conductor is fixed with a flat support on the roof waterproofing, or is exposed to particularly strong winds), the guysshould be made of Ø 5.6 fibre glass. When metal cables areused for guying, the lower anchoring points should be interconnectedwith the down conductor by a conductive materialof the same type. We offer a range of fixtures adapted to mostrequirements.Installation specifications are detailed in the individual productdata sheets.If several lightning air terminals (ESEAT or SRAT) are used inthe outside installation on the same structure, they should beconnected by a conductor, except when this has to pass anobstacle of more than 40 cm in height.D ≤ 40 cm: connect ESEATsD ≥ 40 cm: do not connect air terminalsWhen protecting open-air sites such as sports grounds, golfcourses, swimming pools, and camping sites, ESEATs areinstalled on special supports such as lighting masts, pylons, or any other nearby structures from which the conductor cancover the area to be protected.Our software OPR Designer is able to design a completelightning protection system with all installations details, listingof material, protections areas layout, tests certificates within acomplete technical document that is available for the client inpdf format.d ≤ 40 cm d ≤ 40 cm d ≤ 40 cmInterconnection rule when several ESEAT on the same roofABB OPR lightning protection systems | 15Lightning capture devicesSpecial casesAntennasBy agreement with the user of the antenna, the device canbe mounted on the antenna mast, provided that allowance ismade for a number of factors notably:– the lightning air terminal tip must culminate at least 2 mabove the antenna– the aerial coaxial cable is routed inside the antenna mast– the common supporting mast will no need guying– the connection to the down conductor will be made using aclamp fixed to the foot of the mast.This process, widely used today, offers three advantages:– technical (it earths the aerial itself)– visual (there is only one mast)– cost.To be noted that an ESEAT electronic generator cannot beused in an atmosphere where the temperature is greater than120°.Industrial chimneyESE air terminal:– the lightning air terminal should be mounted on an offsetmast (2CTH0HRI3501) as far as possible from smoke andcorrosive vapours– the mast should be fixed to 2 points as shown in the diagram.To be noted that an ESEAT electronic generator cannot beused in an atmosphere where the temperature is greater than120°.Single rod air terminal:The lightning air terminals (1 or 2 m) should be mounted onstainless steel supports (2CTH0HPS2630) to enable mountingat a 30° angle. They will be interconnected by a belt conductorpositioned 50 cm from the summit of the chimney.When using 1 m air terminal at least two points should beused and placed at intervals of no more than 2 m around theperimeter.When using strike points of at least 2 m in height, the numberof points should be calculated to cover the protection radius.SteepleThe lightning air terminal have been designed to carry roofornaments (rooster, weathervane, cardinal points, etc.).The down conductor is then fixed below the ornaments.2 mminimumESEATØ 35 mm stainless steelESEAT mast2CTH070011R0000500 mmantennasteel hoopsdownconductorESEAToffset mastdown conductorwind indicatorroostertightening screwcardinalpointsconnecting clamp750 mmESEAT basedown conductorESEAT16 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsDown conductorsOverviewDown conductors should preferably be made with tin-platedred copper strips, 30 mm wide and 2 mm thick.Lightning is a high frequency current that flows along theperiphery of the conductors. For a like cross-section, a flatconductor has a greater periphery.An exception to the above rule is buildings with aluminiumcladding on which a copper down conductor might generatean electrolytic coupling phenomenon.Here a 30 x 3 mm aluminium strip should be used or bimetalconnection.In some cases where it is impossible to fix the copper strip, around Ø 8 mm tin-plated copper conductor. In the case wherethere is a need of mechanical movement of the down conductoruse a 30 x 3 mm flexible tin-platted copper braid.PathThe path should be planned to take account of the location ofthe earth termination. The path should be as straight and shortas possible avoiding any sharp bends or upturns. Curvatureradii should be no less than 20 cm. To divert the down conductorlaterally, 30 x 2 mm tin-plated red copper preformedbends should be used.The down conductor path should be chosen to avoid intersectionand to be routed along electrical ducts. Shieldingthe electrical ducts 1 m on each side can be done when it isimpossible to avoid crossing them. However when crossoverscannot be avoided, the conduit should be protected insidemetal sheeting extending by 1 m on either side of the crossover.This metal sheeting should be connected to the downconductor.However, in exceptional cases where an outside downconductor cannot be installed, the conductor may run downthrough a service duct, provided that this is used for no otherpurpose (and subject to agreement with the safety servicesand inspection organizations).When a building is fitted with a metallic external cladding orstone facing or in glass, or in the case of a fixed covering partof the facade, the down conductor can be installed on theconcrete facade or on the main structure, under the cladding.In this case, the conductive parts of the cladding must beconnected to the down conductor at the top and at thebottom.The down conductor, if not a copper one, shall be located atmore than 10 cm behind inflammable material of the outsidecladding if its cross section area if lower than 100 mm². Forcross section area of 100 mm² or greater, there is no need tokeep a distance between the down conductor and theflammable material.A specific calculation of the temperature increase may be performedto validate a different rule.The same requirements apply also to all inflammable materialeven on the roof (e.g. thatched roof).Indoor routingWhen a down conductor cannot be installed outside thestructure, it can be fitted inside on a part or on the full heightof the structure. In this case, the down conductor must beplaced inside a dedicated non flammable and insulating duct.The separation distance shall be calculated also for indoordown conductors in order to be able to determine the necessaryinsulation level of the dedicated duct.The building operator has to be aware of the resultingdifficulties to check and maintain the down conductors, and ofthe resulting risks of over voltages inside the building.Access of people to the specific cable channel should beavoided in stormy periods or measures of protection as peroutdoor down conductors should be fulfilled (see Annex DNF C 17-102 Vers September 2011) including equipotentialbondings of floors with the down conductor.Down-conductor bend shapesLd LdLdLLddL: length of the loop, in metersd: width of the loop, in metersThe risk of any dielectricbreakdown is avoided ifthe condition d>L/20is fulfilled.ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 17Down conductorsParapet wallsWhen the face of the parapet wall is less than or equal to40 cm, an upward section in the down conductor is allowedwith a maximum slope of no more than 45°. For parapet wallswith an upward section of more than 40 cm, space should beallowed or a hole drilled to accommodate a 50 mm minimumdiameter sheath and thereby avoid bypassing. If this is notpossible, supports of the same height as the parapet wallshould be installed to avoid an upturn.ConnectionThe lightning air terminal is connected to the downconductor by a connecting clamp that must be tightly securedon to the mast. The strip will be secured along the extensionmasts by stainless steel clamps. The conductors can beconnected together by coupling strips.FastenersWhatever the supporting medium the down conductor mustbe secured by at least 3 fasteners per linear meter. Insulatorsare used to distance the conductors and prevent contact witheasily flammable material (thatch or wood, for example).The fastener must be appropriate for the structure materialand installed so as not to impair watertightness and allow theconductor thermal extension.Test jointEach down conductor must be fitted with a test joint or connectionlink to enable measurement of the resistance of thelightning earth system alone and the electrical continuity of thedown conductor.The test coupling is usually placed about 2 m above groundlevel to make it accessible for inspection purposes only. To becompliant with standards, the test joint should be identified bythe words "lightning air terminal" and the "earth" symbol.On metal pylons, framework or cladding, the test joint shouldbe placed on the ground in inspection earth pit about 1 m fromthe foot of the metal wall to avoid distorting the resistancemeasurement of the earth connection by inevitably measuringthe electrical resistance on the other metallic networks in thebuilding.Protecting flatBetween the test joint and the ground, the strip is protectedby a 2 m galvanized or stainless steel sheet metal flat fixed by3 clamps supplied with the flat.The protecting flat can be bent to follow the profile of thebuilding.Warning Notice: Protection measures against step andtouch voltagesIn certain conditions, the vicinity of the down-conductors of anESE System, outside the structure, may be hazardous to lifestrip 30 x 2 mmcopper roundø 6 or 8 mm330lead play30 or 4030test jointprotectingathookdown conductorstriplead dowelcopper tape30 x 2 mm3 screw-in stainlesssteel clamps on the2 m of protecting atprotecting ateven if the ESE System has been designed and constructedaccording to the above-mentioned requirements.The hazard is reduced to a tolerable level if one of thefollowing conditions is fulfilled:The probability of persons approaching, or the duration oftheir presence outside the structure and close to the downconductors, is very low. The natural down-conductor systemconsists of typically more than ten columns of the extensivemetal framework of the structure or of several pillars ofinterconnected steel of the structure, with the electricalcontinuity assured;The contact resistance of the surface layer of the soil, within3 m of the down-conductor, is not less than 100 kΩ.NOTE: A layer of insulating material, e.g. asphalt, of 5 cmthickness (or a layer of gravel 15 cm thick) generally reducesthe hazard to a tolerable level. If none of these conditions isfulfilled, protection measures shall be adopted against injury toliving beings due to touch voltages as follows:– insulation of the exposed down-conductor is providedgiving a 100 kV, 1.2/50 μs impulse withstand voltage, e.g. at least 3 mm cross-linked polyethylene– physical restrictions and/or warning notices to minimize theprobability of down-conductors being touched. We proposein our catalogue Warning Notice (2CTH0PSH2009) toprevent touch voltage.40 cmmax45°maxWarning Notice18 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsDown conductorsLightning stroke counterWhen the regulations require the installation of a lightningstroke counter, or to know when to make a complete verificationof the installation after a lightning stroke. One per ESEATor SRAT should be fitted. Regarding mesh cage installationone every 4 down conductor should be installed. The test jointaround 2 m above the ground. The counter is connected inserial on the down conductor.Lightning stroke counter and recorder is used to store dateand time of the impact as well as lightning current values.Meshed conductorsOn roofIs carried on the roof meshes with conductors of which thewidth depends on the level of protection and those ones mustnot be greater than 20 m as follows:It is primarily a closed polygon whose perimeter is adjacentthe periphery of the roof, this polygon is then complete bytransverse conductors to satisfy the condition on the maximumwidth of the meshes. If there is a ridge, the conductormust follow it.Air terminals are placed vertically at the highest and mostvulnerable points on the buildings (roof ridges, salient points, edges, corners, etc.).They are arranged at regular intervals around the periphery ofthe roof as follows:– the distance between two 30 cm air terminals should notexceed 15 m– the distance between two 50 cm air terminals should notexceed 20 m– strike air terminals not located on the outer polygon areconnected to the polygon as follows:- either by a conductor excluding any upturn if the air terminalsis less than 5 m from the polygon- or by two conductors in opposite directions forming atransversal section if the air terminals is located morethan 5 m from the polygon.On wallThe down conductors are placed on the corners and salientfeatures of the building in a layout that should be as symmetricaland regular as possible.The average distance between two adjacent down conductorsdepends on the required protection level.Protection level(IEC 62305-2)Distance between 2 downconductors (IEC 62305-3)Roof mesh size(IEC 62305-3)I 10 m 5 x 5II 10 m 10 x 10III 15 m 15 x 15IV 20 m 20 x 20ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 19Equipotential bondingOverviewWhen lightning current flows through a conductor, differencesin potential appear between the conductor and nearby metallicnetworks (steel framework, pipes, etc.) inside or outsidethe building. Dangerous sparks may be produced betweenthe two ends of the resulting open loop.There are two ways to avoid this problem:a) Establish an interconnection providing an equipotentialbond between the conductor and the metallic networksb) Allow a separation distance between the conductor and themetallic networks.The separation distance is the distance beyond which no dangeroussparks can be produced between the down conductorcarrying the lightning current and nearby metallic networks.Because it is often difficult to guarantee that the lightningprotection system is sufficiently isolated during installation orwill remain so in the event of structural changes, on-site work, etc., equipotential bonding is often preferred.There are, however, some cases in which equipotential bondingis not used (e.g. when there are flammable or explosivepiping net-works). In this case, the down conductors arerouted beyond the separation distance "s".Separation distance calculationS (m) = ki.kc.Lkmwhere:"kc" is a coefficient determined by the number of downconductors per ESEAT:kc = 1 for one down conductor, kc = 0.75 for two down conductors, kc = 0.6 for three conductors, kc = 0.41 for four ormore conductors." ki " is determined by the required protection level:ki = 0.08 for protection level 1 (high protection), for veryexposed or strategic buildingski = 0.06 for protection level 2 (reinforced protection, exposedbuilding)ki = 0.04 for protection level 3 & 4 (standard protection)"km" is related to the material situated between the twoloop ends:km : 1 for airkm = 0.5 for a solid material other than metal"L" is the length between the point at which proximity ismeasured and the point at which the metallic network isearthed or the nearest equipotential bonding point.S1L1L2S2air conditioningearthingbarExampleAn ESEAT with two down conductors protects a 20 m highbuilding with protection level I.– Question 1 : Should an air conditioning extractor locatedon the roof be interconnected if 3 m away from the downconductor? Length L1 = 25 m.Answer 1 : S1 = 0.08 x 0.75 x 25 / 1 = 1.5 mSince the distance (3 m) between the conductor and the airconditioningsystem is greater than the separation distance(1.5 meters), there is no need to interconnect this extractor.– Question 2 : Should the computer located in the building 3m away from the down conductor be interconnected withthe conductor, where L2 = 10 m?Answer 2 : S2 = 0.08 x 0.75 x 10 / 0.5 = 1.2 mSince the distance between the computer and the downconductor (3 m) is greater than the separation distance(1.2 m), there is no need to interconnect this computer.A tool is available that can be used to quickly calculate theseparation distances.20 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsEquipotential bondingEquipotential bonding of external metallic networksThe equipotential bonding of external metallic networks is anintegral part of the outdoor lightning protection installation justlike the down conductors and their earths.All conductive metallic networks located at a distance of lessthan s (separation distance) from a conductor should beconnected to the conductor by a conductive material with alike cross-section.The aerial masts and small posts supporting electrical powerlines should be connected to the conductor via a mastarrester. Earthing systems embedded in walls should beconnected to the conductor if terminal connections have beenprovided.Equipotential bonding of internal metallic networksThe equipotential bonding of internal metallic networks is anintegral part of the indoor lightning protection installation.All conductive metallic networks in the structure (steelframeworks, ducts, sheathing, electrical raceways or telecommunicationcable trays, etc.) should be connected to theconductor. This is done by using a conductive material witha cross-section of at least 6 mm² for copper or 16 mm² forsteel to connect to equipotential bonding bars installed insidethe structure and connected in turn to the closest point of theearthing circuit.Unscreened telecommunication or electrical conductorsshould be bonded to the lightning protection system via surgearresters.Equipotential bonding of earthsThis is done by using a conductive material with across-section of at least 16 mm² for copper or 50 mm²for steel to connect bonding bar to earth termination system.interconnection withbuilding loop112233telephone line protectionlow voltage power supplyprotectionIT system protection44TV protectionESEAT OPRABB OPR lightning protection systems | 21Earth termination systemsOverviewEach down conductor in a lightning protection system must beconnected to an earth termination system which fulfils four conditions:– The earth termination resistance valueInternational standards stipulate an earth termination resistancevalue of less than 10 ohms.This value should be measured on the earth connection isolatedfrom any other conductive component.If the resistance value of 10 ohms cannot be achieved, the earthtermination is nonetheless considered compliant if it is made up ofat least 160 m (protection level 1) or 100 m (protection level 2, 3& 4) of conductors or electrodes, each section measuring no morethan 20 m.– Current carrying capacityThis is an often overlooked but essential aspect of lightningconduction. To minimise the earthing system impedance value, a parallel configuration of three electrodes is strongly recommendedinstead of just one excessively long electrode.– Equipotential bondingStandards require the equipotential bonding of lightningearth termination systems with the existing earthing systems.This must be done using 16 mm² (copper) or 50 mm² (steel)minimum cross section conductor.– Distance from buried utilitiesEarth termination should be at least 2 m (if soil resistivity is over500 ohms/m 5 m) distant from any buried metal pipe or electricalconduit, not connected to the main equipotential bonding of thestructure.Inspection earth pitThe connection parts of an earth termination system (duck's footconnector, earth rod, test joint) can be accessed in an inspection earthpit.Lightning air terminalsDucks foot connectorThe minimum earth termination system is made up of 25 m of30 x 2 mm tin-plated copper strip, split into 3 strands buried in3 trenches at a depth of 60 to 80 cm dug in a fan shape like a duck'sfoot: one end of the longest strand is connected to the test joint, thetwo other strands being linked to a special connection known as aduck foot's connector.Earth rodsWhen the site topography does not lend itself to the installation of aduck's foot as described above, an earth termination system can bedeveloped using at least 3 copper earth rods each with a minimumlength of 2 m, buried vertically in the ground; the rods should bespaced at intervals of about 2 m and at a mandatory distance of 1 mto 1.5 m from the foundations.protectionat30 x 2 mm down conductor6 to 9 m depending on soilresistance1 m from wall depth60 to 80 cm8 to 12 mstainlesssteel clampNB: the earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning gridDUCK'S FOOT EARTHTERMINATION SYSTEMduck'sfootconnectorDuck's foot earth termination systemIt is recommended to cover the earth termination system with a red or orange warningplastic mesh.protectionat30 x 2 mm strip2 m1 m from wall depth60 to 80 cmstainless steelclampNB: the earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning grid 2 m rodearth rod clampROD TRIANGLE EARTHTERMINATION SYSTEMRod triangle earth termination systemIt is recommended to cover the earth termination system with a red or orange warningplastic mesh.DUCK'S FOOT EARTH TERMINATIONSYSTEM WITH EARTH RODSprotectionat30 x 2 mm strip8 to 12 mdepth 6 to 9 m 60 to 80 cmduck'sfootconnectorstainlesssteel clampNB: the earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning gridrodearth rodclamp1 m from wallDuck's foot earth termination system with earth rodsIt is recommended to cover the earth termination system with a red or orange warningplastic mesh.22 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsEarth termination systemsCombinedIf the soil type is not altogether suitable for a duck's foot connector, a combination of duck's foot and earth rods will significantlyenhance protection (better earth resistance). In this case, the endof each duck foot connector strand is connected to an earth rod.Meshed conductorsDuck's foot connectorThe earth connection is made up of 3 conductors each 3 mminimum in length, buried horizontally at a depth of 60 to 80 cm.One of the strips is connected to one end of the test joint; theother two splay out at an angle of 45° on either side of this centralstrand and are coupled to it with a special connector known as aduck's foot connector. The resistance value must be less than 10ohms. If the resistance value of 10 ohms cannot be achieved, theearth termination is nonetheless considered compliant if it is madeup of at least 160 m of electrode in level 1, 100 m in level 2 and10 m in level 3 & 4.Earth rodsThe earth connection is made up of 2 spiked vertical rods at least2 m in length, connected to each other and to the down conductor, and at least 2 m from each other. The rods should be 1 m to1.5 m from the foundations. The earth termination systems in abuilding should be connected together with a conductor with thesame cross-section and of the same type as the down conductors.Where there is an existing entrenched earth protection loopin the foundations for the building's 2 m flat electrical installations, there is no need to create a new loop: the earth terminations cansimply 0.6 m be interconnected by a tin-plated 30 x 2 mm copperstrip. The resistance value must be less than 10 ohms. If the resistancevalue of 10 ohms cannot be achieved, the earth terminationis nonetheless considered compliant if it is made up of at least160 m (80 m if vertical rods) of electrode in level 1, 100 m (50 m ifvertical rods) in level 2 and 10 m (5 m if vertical rods) in level 3 & 4.Earthing system equipotential bondingWhen the protected building or area has an existing earth terminationsystem for the electrical installations, the lightning earthtermination systems should be connected to it.This interconnection should be made to the earthing circuit at theclosest point to the down conductor.When this is impossible in an existing building, the interconnectionshould be made to the earth plate. In this case, the interconnectingconductor should be constructed such that no currents areinduced in nearby equipment cables.In all cases, the interconnection should include a device that canbe disconnected to enable measurements of the resistance of thelightning earth termination system.This device can be made up of either an interconnection box forequipotential bonding fixed to the main wall of the building, or anequipotential bonding bar located in an inspection earth pit.Duck's foot system for a meshed cageIt is recommended to cover the earth termination system with a red or orange warningplastic mesh.protectionat30 x 2 mm strip3 m1 m from wall depth60 to 80 cm4 mstainlesssteel clampNB: the earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning gridDUCK'S FOOT SYSTEMFOR A MESHED CAGEduck'sfootconnector2 m0.6 m2 mtestjointprotectionat2 rodsD: down conductor of a lightning air terminalB: entrenched building loopP: lightning conductor earth termination systemtestjointdisconnectableconnectionDPBABB OPR lightning protection systems | 23Inspection ESEAT maintenanceThe current standards NF C 17-102 September 2011 editionrecommends regular, periodical inspections of the lightningprotection system.The following schedules are recommended:Protection level Visual inspection(year)Complete inspection(year)Critical system completeinspection (year)I and II 1 2 1III and IV 2 4 1Note: Critical systems shall be defined by laws or end users.A lightning protection system should also be inspected wheneverthe protection structure is modified, repaired or when thestructure has been struck by lightning.Lightning strikes can be recorded by a lightning strike counterinstalled on one of the down conductors.ESEAT maintenance kit, a unique solutionWith its experience of ESEAT development and specialtesting processes, ABB offers a simple and complete solution:a telescopic 8 m pole supplied with a portable test case toenable simple in situ inspections.The device can be used without dismantling the ESEAT.The following aspects of an ESE System installationshould be inspected (see NF C 17-102 September 2011edition pagraph 8)A visual inspection should be performed to make sure that:– no damage related to lightning has been noted– integrity of ESE System has not been modified– no extension or modification of the protected structureneeds the installation of additional lightning protectionmeasures– the electrical continuity of visible conductors is correct– all component fasteners and mechanical protectors are ingood condition– no parts have been weakened by corrosion– the separation distance is respected and there are enoughequipotential bondings and their condition is correct– SPD end of life indicator is correct– maintenance operations results are checked and recordedComplete verification includes visual verification and thefollowing measurements to check:– the electrical continuity of hidden conductors– the earth termination system resistance values (anyvariation with regards to initial values > 50 % should beanalysed)– properly working of ESEAT according to manufacturerprocedure.NOTE: High frequency earth system measurement is feasible during installation or inmaintenance operation in order to check the coherence between the needs and theinstalled earth system.The findings of each scheduled inspection should be recordedin a detailed report stating the required corrective measures.Any faults identified in a scheduled inspection should becorrected as soon as possible in order to maintain optimallightning protection.Initial verification should be performed once the ESE systeminstallation is completed in order to make sure that it complieswith the NF C 17-102 standard requirements.24 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsLightning air terminal rangeESEAT typical installation on masonry buildingOPR lightning conductorp.26Coupling accessoriesp.36Hooks p.37Test joint p.39Duck foot connectorp.41Lightning strokecounter and recorderp.43Extension mast p.31Conductor supportingstud p.37Ruberalu bracketsp.37Antenna mastarrester p.43Boltedbrackets p.33Protecting flatp.39Equipotential boxp.39Type 1 surge protective devicehighly recommendedABB OPR lightning protection systems | 25Lightning air terminal rangeESEAT typical installation on metal claddingOPR lightningconductor p.26Threaded basesp.35Test joint p.39Interconnection boxp.39Lightning strokecounter p.43Stainless steel clipp.37Protecting flatp.39Water deflecting conesp.35WaterproofStainless steel clipp.37Type 1 surge protective devicehighly recommended26 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsLightning air terminal range - Early Streamer EmissionOPR, the high pulse voltage, initiation advance lightningair terminalABB continues to innovate, and has developed a new generationof lightning devices. The new OPR range with increasedinitiation advance performances, represents further progressin terms of protection, operating autonomy and ease of maintenance.These advancements reinforce ABB's position asInternational leader in direct lightning protection with over 200000 installations throughout the world.ABB manufacturing qualityThe enviable reputation of the OPR has been earned throughmaintaining a consistently high quality in manufacture. Beforeleaving the factory, each OPR has been tested for installationbreakdown at high voltage, and subjected to a currenttest that ensures its performance when conducting lightningdischarges. The high voltage output pulses at the OPR arealso examined to verify correct amplitude and frequency. TheOPR is built to withstand the arduous conditions encounteredin service, and its ongoing performance can be monitoredsimply and quickly using the OPR test set.The advantage of initiation advanceThe unique efficiency of the OPR lightning air terminal isbased on a specific initiation advance, well before the naturalformation of an upward leader, the OPR generates a leaderthat rapidly propagates to capture the lightning and direct it toearth. Validated in the laboratory, this gain in time relative tothe simple rod provides additional essential protection.Complete autonomyDuring a storm the ambient electric field may rise to between10 to 20 kV/m. As soon as the field exceeds a thresholdrepresenting the minimum risk of a lightning strike, the OPRlightning terminal is activated. It draws its energy from theambient electric field the energy required to generate highvoltage pulses, creating and propagating an upward leader.No other power sources are required, and no radioactivecomponents are used.Upward leaders Return arc Meeting pointA B C DOPR Upward leaders Meeting pointA B C DABB OPR lightning protection systems | 27RodCheck system: visual strike indicatorThe aim of the RodCheck system is to give visual information on the intensity of the lightning current caughtby the OPR even from a long distance.We need to keep in mind that the lightning rod is a security device that permits to limit risk and thereforecontributes to the safety of the people. Indeed a lightning impact may lead to explosion, to fire and consequentlybe a risk for the people within the structure.As for any security device, it is important to figure out directly its degree of aging, which is linked to the lightningstrike current to which it has been subjected.On many sites lightning rods are usually equipped with counters that detect the flow of current without necessarilygiving information about its intensity.Only a digital counter could give such characteristics, but it would undoubtedly increase the price of theoverall installation.On the other hand, the new edition of the NF C 17-102 also states that from January 2009 it has been compulsoryto have two down conductors per ESEAT. Therefore, as the counters are usually placed only on oneof the two down conductors, they don't record the entire value of the current.The RodCheck system has been developed so as to solve this specific security issue and it provides anestimate of the intensity of the lightning strike at first glance.Thanks to the new RodCheck technology, the OPR considerably reinforces and improves the security of sitesand people and provides the right answer to a perfectly justified question: "Has the lightning rod been deeplyhit and is it necessary to check the installation?"This visual indicator is made of a UV resistant EPDM shell, mounted directly on the OPR external spark gap.RodCheck has not beenhit by a lightning strokeRodCheck after lightningstroke of few kARodCheck after severalstrokes or one of more than40 kALightning air terminal rangeEarly Streamer Emission Air Terminal - ESEAT1 2 3In the examples 2 and 3 we recommend performing a test of the OPR's electronics and afterwards the redring may be put back in the initial position (example 1).As long as there is no indication of strike it is not necessary to test the generator. But on the other hand, westrongly recommend a complete check of the lighting rod OPR, including the check of its internal electronicsystem in case of a lightning impact. An 8 m high pole connected to a test case is needed to carry out thetest of the generator.28 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsLightning air terminal rangeEarly Streamer Emission Air Terminal - ESEATTypical applicationsIndustrial sites, buildings, warehouses, where a large protection area is needed.Ordering detailsOPR∆T Description Type Order code Ean code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)µs kg30 OPR 30 IMH3000 2CTB899800R7000 3660308514172 1 2.40045 OPR 45 IMH4500 2CTB899800R7500 3660308514706 1 2.40060 OPR 60 IMH6000 2CTB899800R7100 3660308514189 1 2.400Mast to be ordered separately.Maximum operating temperature: 120 °C.OPR radius of protectionLevel of protection I (r = 20 m) II (r = 30 m) III (r = 45 m) IV (r = 60 m)Type OPR 30 OPR 45 OPR 60 OPR 30 OPR 45 OPR 60 OPR 30 OPR 45 OPR 60 OPR 30 OPR 45 OPR 60h (m) Radius of protection Rp (m)2 19 25 31 22 28 35 25 32 39 28 36 433 29 38 47 33 42 52 38 48 58 43 57 644 38 51 63 44 57 69 51 65 78 57 72 855 48 63 79 55 71 86 63 81 97 71 89 1076 48 63 79 55 71 87 64 81 97 72 90 1078 49 64 79 56 72 87 65 82 98 73 91 10810 49 64 79 57 72 88 66 83 99 75 92 10915 50 65 80 58 73 89 69 85 101 78 95 11120 50 65 80 59 74 89 71 86 102 81 97 11345 43 65 76 58 75 89 75 90 105 89 104 11950 40 65 74 57 75 88 75 90 105 89 104 12055 36 65 72 55 75 86 74 90 105 90 105 12060 30 65 69 52 75 85 73 90 104 90 105 120Note: the optimized radius of protection is reached when placing the ESE lightning conductor at 5 m above the highest point of the structure to protect. A minimum of 2 m is a must.Rp3Rp1 Rp2h3h1 h2Rp(h) : Protection radius at a given height (h) for h ≥ 5 mRp(h) = √ 2rh - h2 + ∆(2r + ∆)For h < 5 m, refer to the table aboveh : Height of the OPR tip above the surface(s) to be protectedr(m) : Standardized striking distance∆(m) = 106 .∆T (OPR efficiency)Calculating protected areasThe radius of protection Rp of an OPR is given by French standard NFC 17-102 (September 2011 edition).It depends on the ESEAT efficiency ∆T of the OPR measured in thehigh voltage laboratory, on the levels of protection I, II, III or IV calculatedaccording to the lightning risk assessment guides or standards(NF C 17-102 annex A or IEC 62305-2, guides UTE C 17-100-2 or UTEC 17-108) and on the height h of the lightning air terminal over the areato be protected (minimum height = 2 m).The protection radius is calculated according to Annex C in Frenchstandard NF C 17-102. For OPR 60, limiting the value of ∆T used inthe protection radius calculations to 60 µs (limited 60 µs in accordancewith the paragraph 5.2.2 of the NF C 17-102 standard).LPL I LPL II LPL III LPL IVRolling sphere radius r(m) 20 30 45 60ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 29Typical applicationsSmall structure, pylons, chimney.DescriptionThe rods are made of a tapered solid stainless steel tip (L = 0.20 m), a stainless steel mast of 1 or 2 mlength, to be ordered separately. In accordance with standard IEC 62305-3 (paragraph 5.2.2), the protectionradii are as follows:Radius of protection Rp (m)HmLevel of protection HmI II III IV2 5 6 9 114 8 10 12 156 10 12 15 208 10 13 17 2110 10 14 17 2220 10 15 21 29H: height of conductor tip above protected surface(s).Rp: radius of protection in horizontal plane located at a vertical distance h from the conductor tip.Ordering detailsLength Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)m kg0.20 Stainless steel tip (A) and connection clamp (D) PTS3000 2CTH010004R0000 3660308521828 2.5001.00 1 m stainless steel air termination mast (B) HPI3001 2CTH010001R0000 3660308521316 2.0002.00 2 m stainless steel air termination mast (C) HPI3002 2CTH010002R0000 3660308521323 3.500αhRp(B) 1 m(C) 2 mPROTECTION OF INDIVIDUAL HOUSES2 m minimumprotecting flatdisconnectable equipotential bondingtype 1 powerlineprotectiontelephone lineprotectioncoaxial protectionlightning earth systemtest jointdown conductorsingle rod air terminalRp = 5 to 29 melectrical earthingLightning air terminal rangeSingle Rod Air Terminal - SRAT(A)(D)Protection of individual houses30 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsInstallationLightning air terminal rangeExtension mastsImportant: All these extension masts need to be orderedwith their screw and fixing kits (see next page)OPRORØ 30a) 1.3 m stainless steel ESEAT mast: MAT3001orb) 2.3 m stainless steel ESEAT mast: MAT3002Ø 35d) 2 m extension mast: RAL3502ore) 3 m extension mast: RAL3503Ø 42f) 2 m extension mast: RAL4202org) 3 m extension mast: RAL4203Ø 50h) 2 m extension mast: RAL5002ori) 3 m extension mast: RAL5003Ø 35c) 3 m stainless steel ESEAT mast: MAT3503+ kit for MAT3503: KFP0035ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 31MastsMastsHeight Description Type Order code Ean code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)m kg1.3 Stainless steel ESEAT mast Ø 30 MAT3001 2CTH070001R0000 3660308521651 1 1.9002.3 Stainless steel ESEAT mast Ø 30 MAT3002 2CTH070002R0000 3660308521668 1 3.0003.0 Stainless steel ESEAT mast Ø 35 MAT3503 2CTH070011R0000 3660308521750 1 5.200To be noted that the MAT3503 needs to be ordered with it screw and fixing kit KFP0035 made of a connecting clamp especiallydesigned for Ø 35 mm mast.Kit for MAT3503Description Type Order code Ean code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgScrew and fixing KFP0035 2CTH050027R0000 3660308521781 1 -Extension mastsDescriptionAll the extension masts have to be ordered with their screw kits.Ordering detailsDescription Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgExtension masts2 m stainless steel mast Ø 35 RAL3502 2CTH070005R0000 3660308521699 1 5.2003 m stainless steel mast Ø 35 RAL3503 2CTH070006R0000 3660308521705 1 6.4002 m stainless steel mast Ø 42 RAL4202 2CTH070007R0000 3660308521712 1 6.4003 m stainless steel mast Ø 42 RAL4203 2CTH070008R0000 3660308521729 1 9.6002 m stainless steel mast Ø 50 RAL5002 2CTH070009R0000 3660308521736 1 7.5003 m stainless steel mast Ø 50 RAL5003 2CTH070010R0000 3660308521743 1 11.000Screw and fixing kitScrew and fixing kit for stainless steel mast Ø 35 and 42 (1) KFR3542 2CTH050026R0000 3660308521774 1 –Screw and fixing kit for stainless steel mast Ø 50 (2) KFR0050 2CTH050028R0000 3660308521798 1 –(1) 5 collars, 4 nuts and bolts.(2) 6 collars, 2 nuts and bolts.Selection guideMast configuration without guying kit for a wind.Nominal height ESEAT mast type Extension mast typemBelow 140 km/h and more than 6 km away from the sea4.5 (b + d) b) MAT3002 d) RAL35025.2 (c + d) c) MAT3503 d) RAL35026.2 (c + e) c) MAT3503 e) RAL35037.2 (c + d + f) c) MAT3503 d) RAL3502 + f) RAL4202Up to 170 km/h or close to sea side4.5 (b + d) b) MAT3502 d) RAL35025.2 (c + d) c) MAT3503 d) RAL35026.5 (b + d + f) b) MAT3002 d) RAL3502 + f) RAL42027.2 (c + d + f) c) MAT3502 d) RAL3502 + f) RAL4202Lightning air terminal rangeMasts and extension masts32 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsSelf carrying pylons– material: hot galvanized steel– these pylons are made of a welded steel lattice with a triangular cross-section. Each element is 3 m inlength, except the ground anchoring section (about 1 m)– delivered complete with stainless steel hardware and Ø 35 mm mast head (to receive OPR mast)– the concrete anchorage blocks should be made with concrete in a proportion of 350 kg/m3 and calculatedfor a good ground.Height (1) Self-supportingmZone I136 km/hZone II149 km/hZone III167 km/hZone IV183 km/h9 2CTHCHPA0109 2CTHCHPA0209 2CTHCHPA0309 2CTHCHPA040912 2CTHCHPA0112 2CTHCHPA0212 2CTHCHPA0312 2CTHCHPA041215 2CTHCHPA0115 2CTHCHPA0215 2CTHCHPA0315 2CTHCHPA041518 2CTHCHPA0118 2CTHCHPA0218 2CTHCHPA0318 2CTHCHPA0418(1) Other sizes on request - Technical specifications available - For wind zone V (210 km/h) please consult us.Guyed pylons– material: hot galvanized steel– these pylons are made of a welded steel lattice with a triangular cross-section (centerline distance175 mm) supplied in lengths of 3 or 6 m– use: lightning air terminal supports for flat roofs– fibre glass guying (1 set per section)– delivered complete with base and neoprene tile, Ø 35 mm mast head, fibre glass and accessories (anchoringclips and stay tighteners) for guying, with bolted anchoring.Height (2) Guyedm Zones I and II9 2CTHCHPH090012 2CTHCHPH120015 2CTHCHPH150018 2CTHCHPH1800(2) Other sizes on request - Technical specifications available - For wind zone V (210 km/h) please consult us.Guying kit for lightning rod with mastComplete kit with:– 25 m of fibre glass cable to be ordered separately, 6 anchoring clips, 3 stay tighteners, 3 ring fasteners, 1 3-directional clamp and 1 base (2CTHCHPP4523).Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kgGuying kit FHF0001 2CTH050022R0000 3660308521613 12.00025 m fibre glass cable 5.6 mm FDV5625 2CTH050023Z0000 3660308521620 –OBSTA obstruction lightsThe OBSTA HISTI is an obstruction light for hazard to low-flying aircraft for airport, building, broadcasttransmitting towers, chimneys, bridges and transmission lines.This lamp based on cold neon discharge principle offers high reliability, robustness in hostile environments(EMC, climatic...), proven long life (more than 25 000 hours) on all kinds of obstacle like transmission lines, TV towers and exposure in electromagnetic fields and high temperature.One unique model will adjust itself to the main supply voltages, continuously from 100 V to 240 Vrms, 50/60 Hz.Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)OBSTA HI STI 100 V A 240 V HCO0071 2CTHCHCO0071 – 5OBSTA photoelectric cell 230 V HCO0752 2CTHCHCO0752 – 0.4For another voltage, please contact us.OBSTA low intensity LEDThe NAVILITE is based on LED technology in compliance with ICAO low intensity type recently applied.These lights are devoted to the night marking of all kinds of obstacles with a DC power supply.Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)OBSTA Navilite LED 48VDC HCHCO0900 2CTHCHCO0900 – 0.4For another voltage, please contact us.Lightning air terminal rangePylonsOPRguying ringbaseberglass guystaytighteneranchormasts21ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 33Wall fixing accessoriesBolted brackets– use: bolted fixing for an offset mast on a vertical wall (M 10)– bolt hole diameter: Ø 11 mm– distance between bolt holes: 120 mm.Offset Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)mm kg290 Long bolted bracket PBL0290 2CTH050016R0000 3660308521552 1 1.900125 Short bolted bracket PBC0125 2CTH050015R0000 3660308521545 1 1.400Use 3 brackets for installation of 5 m (and 6 m) consisting of a 2 m (or 3 m) lightning rod with additional 3 m mast, with a wind lessthan 136 km/h if 2 is not sufficient.Offset bracket– use: fixing of a mast offset from a vertical section– offset distance: max. 190 mm.190 Offset bracket for vertical support PDV0190 2CTH050018R0000 3660308521576 1 1.800Pylons, ladders, guardrail or fences fixing accessoriesOffset clamps– use: fixing of a mast offset from a vertical wall or a horizontal section by means of Ø 10 mm bolts.Use Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgHorizontal support 1 - Clamp for horizontal support CDH5001 2CTH050013R0000 3660308521521 1 1.700Vertical support 2 - Clamp for vertical support CDV5001 2CTH050014R0000 3660308521538 1 1.700Version in 3 brackets for installation of 5 m (and 6 m) consisting of a 2 m (or 3 m) lightning rod with additional 3 m mast, with a windless than 136 km/h.Steel hoopsMasonry chimney (rectangular/square section)– use: fixing of a mast on a chimney, a concrete mast, etc. (rectangular/square section).Clamping Ø Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)mm kgfrom 30 to 60 Bracket square section CCC6001 2CTH050020R0000 3660308521590 1 2.000– Coil of steel hoop (25 m) HFC4002 2CTHCHFC4002 3660308523440 1 5.000Metal cylindrical chimney– use: fixing of a mast on a chimney, round section).250 Bracket cylindrical section CCT5001 2CTH050021R0000 3660308521606 1 1.140– Stainless steel tape 20 x 0.7 (50 m) HFP2650 2CTHCHFP2650 3660308523471 1 4.000– Tightening clips 200 mm HCP2651 2CTH0HCP2651 3660308524485 5 0.050Wide offset bracket– use: bolted fixing of a mast offset from a vertical wall (M 10)– material: galvanized steel– offset distance: 45 cm– distance between bolt holes: 54 cm– minimum distance between brackets: 50 cm to fix a set of masts for a building with a height of 5 m; 1 mfor higher buildings– delivered complete with hardware and back plate.Clamping Ø Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)mm kgfrom 30 to 60 Wide offset bracket HPS0010 2CTH0HPS0010 3660308522658 1 10.500Lightning air terminal rangeLateral fixations1234 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsIndustrial chimney offset and bracketOffset for industrial chimney stacksDescription– material: stainless steel– delivered complete with stainless steel connecting clamp for conductor– to offset a solitary air terminal (without extension mast) by 1 m from a chimney stack– assembly: lightning air terminal bolts into right hand tube + offset rod fitted to chimney stack by twobrackets earth with two Ø 8 mm drill holes.Ordering detailsOffset Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)m kg1 Offset for industrial chimney stacks HRI3501 2CTH0HRI3501 3660308522672 1 5.200Industrial chimney bracketDescription– use: to offset a single rod air terminal (1 or 2 m) for a chimney stack– material: stainless steel– delivered complete with stainless kit screw kit.Ordering detailsDescription Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgStainless steel chimney bracket HPS2630 2CTH0HPS2630 3660308522665 1 1.300Lightning air terminal rangeLateral fixationsABB OPR lightning protection systems | 35Ballasted tripods– use: to fit a mast (height 5 m) on flat roof (max. gradient 5 %) without drilling or sticking on the roof– material: galvanized steel.Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kgBallasted tripod - Wind up to 149 km/h TLB5002 2CTHCTLB5002 3660308524430 120.00Ballasted tripod - Wind up to 170 km/h TLB5004 2CTHCTLB5004 3660308524447 200.00Ballasted tripod - Wind up to 186 km/h TLB5005 2CTHCTLB5005 – 350.00For wind speed above 186 km/h a guying kit must be used.Supporting plates / tripods– use: to fix lightning conductors or elevation masts to flat roofs– material: galvanized steel– bolt hole diameters: 12 mm.Height Dimensionsof baseCenterlinedistanceDescription Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm kg330 200 x 200 160 x 160 1 - Plate for OPR (30 mm) or extension mast (35 mm)HPP4523 2CTH0HPP4523 3660308522610 5.500800 420 face 390 face 2 - Tripod for 30 to 50 mm tube TSH4525 2CTHCTSH4525 3660308524454 8.500H0HPP4523: to be used with a guying kitHCTSH4523: maximum height in wind zone 3 is 3 m.Carriage bolt holdfasts– use: to fix a single conductor rod (with no extension mast) in timber frameworks or bedding in masonry– material: galvanized steel– delivered complete with hardware.Effectivethread L.Effective L.after fixingHole Ø Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm m mm kg150 0.10 18 Short sup. HST2044 2CTH0HST2044 3660308522689 1.250Maximum height in wind zone 3 is 5 m (without guying kit)Important: not to omit the use of water deflecting cone to secure watertightness of the installation.Threaded bases– use: to fix a conductor to a metal framework. The conductor may be raised by a Ø 35 mm extension mast– material: galvanized steel– delivered complete with hardware.Maximum tightening L. Thread Ø Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm mm kg115 30 OPR mast base HEF2107 2CTH050033R0000 3660308522511 2.200150 36 Ø 35 mm extension mast base HEF2313 2CTH050034R0000 3660308522528 4.500Maximum height in wind zone 3 is 5 m (without guying kit)Important: not to omit the use of water deflecting cone to secure watertightness of the installation.Water deflecting cones– use: to ensure the watertightness in between the roof and the mast when fixing is used under roofing. Cutaccording to mast diameter (CRE)– material: rubber (CRE).Taper opening Height Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm mm kg6 to 50 55 Water deflecting cone CRE2700 2CTHCCRE2700 3660308523211 0.040Lightning air terminal rangeRoof fixing accessories1236 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsConductorsFlat conductors (1) (sold per meter)Material Section Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weightkg/mTin-plated copper 30 x 2 mm (strip) CPC2712 2CTH040003R0000 3660308523129 1 0.535Tin-plated copper 30 x 2 mm (25 m spool) CPC0025 2CTH040001R0000 3660308521866 25 0.535Tin-plated copper 30 x 2 mm (50 m spool) CPC0050 2CTH040002R0000 3660308521873 50 0.535Stainless steel 30 x 2 mm (strip) CPI2711 2CTHCCPI2711 3660308523150 1 0.474Galvanized steel 30 x 3.5 mm CPG3035 2CTHCCPG3035 3660308523143 1 0.870(1) Other dimensions on request.Round conductors (2)Material Section Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weightmm² kg/mØ 8 tin-plated copper 50 (50 m spool) CRC8000 2CTH040005R0000 3660308524676 50 0.450Ø 8 red copper 50 (50 m spool) CRC8001 2CTH040006R0000 3660308524683 50 0.450(2) Other dimensions on request.Shunts– electrolytically tin-plated flat flexible copper braid with welded eyelet at each end– other lengths and cross-sections available on request.Length Section Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)m mm² kg0.30 50 STP5030 2CTH0STP5030 3660308522870 1 0.1600.50 50 STP5050 2CTH0STP5050 3660308522887 1 0.2700.75 50 STP5075 2CTH0STP5075 3660308522894 1 0.4001.00 50 STP5100 2CTH0STP5100 3660308522900 1 0.600Coupling accessoriesCoupling strips– use: for coupling or crossing two conductors without riveting– the "standard" models accommodate 30 mm wide strips and rounds with Ø 6 and 8 mm– the "multiple" model also enables crossings of round conductors– the special strip model only accommodates flat strips.Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kg1 - Galvanized steel "standard" coupling BRP2680 2CTHCBRP2680 3660308523082 1 0.3002 - Copper "standard" coupling BRC2780 2CTH0BRC2780 3660308522047 1 0.2103 - Copper "multiple" coupling BRX3780 2CTH0BRX3780 3660308522115 1 0.3004 - Special copper coupling for strip BRH2779 2CTH0BRH2779 3660308522092 1 0.2005 - Special stainless steel coupling for strip BRI2779 2CTH0BRI2779 3660308522108 1 0.2046 - 3 x 2 and Ø 8 mm line coupling BRC2781 2CTH0BRC2781 3660308522054 1 0.202Connector for round conductorsDescription Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgLug with offset base for 8 mm conductors PRC8000 2CTHCPRC8000 3660308524300 1 0.050Lightning air terminal rangeConductors and coupling accessories1 24 356ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 37Roof fixing accessoriesConductor supporting studs– material: black synthetic exterior filled with cement (except 2CTHCHPV2771 to be filled up by your means)– eliminates the need to drill through waterproofing to attach the conductor– can be glued with neoprene glue– height: 8 cm.Use Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgØ 8 mm conductor30 x 2 mm conductorCable raceway1 - Hollow stud HPV2771 2CTHCHPV2771 3660308524072 1 0.160Ø 8 mm conductor30 x 2 mm conductor2 - Solid stud (clip) HPB2772 2CTHCHPB2772 3660308523945 1 1.290Ruberalu brackets for flat roof with waterproofing– material: bituminised aluminium– these brackets are attached by hot-melt gluing.Dimensions Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)mm kg150 x 40 HBR2717 2CTH0HBR2717 3660308522375 1 0.020Rolls also available.Clipped tile fasteners– material: tin-plated copper strip saddle 25 x 1 mm– Stainless steel clips: used for fixing 30 x 2 mm strips to all types of slated or unbedded roofing tiles (1)– PVC clips: used for round conductors, exists in red copper colour or grey (2).For flat conductors1 - Tile fastener with stainless steel clip for flat conductor HAA2673 2CTH0HAA2673 3660308522238 1 0.043For round conductors2 - Tile fastener with grey PVC clips for round conductor HAR2745 2CTH0HAR2745 3660308522283 1 0.0452 - Tile fastener with red copper colour PVC clips for round conductor HAR2746 2CTH0HAR2746 3660308522290 1 0.045Wall fixing accessories for flat conductorsMasonry wall hooks– fixing: on masonry by hookds into lead dowels– for flat strip.Material Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgGalvanized steel Hook 30 mm CMA3020 2CTH050032Z0000 3660308521859 20 0.014Lead Dowel CPB3020 2CTH050030Z0000 3660308521835 20 0.003Screw fastener– for 30 mm wide strip: supplied with wood screw– material: brass.Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgMasonry screw fastener HCL2642 2CTH0HCL2642 3660308522443 1 0.020Metal cladding wallsStainless steel clips– material: stainless steel– for fixing a flat strip conductor– fixed with pop rivets or screws (Ø 4 mm) not supplied.1 - Stainless steel clips for 30 x 2 CIP3020 2CTH050031Z0000 3660308521842 20 0.0022 - Aluminium waterproof pop rivets Ø 4 HRP0100 2CTH050011Z0000 3660308521507 100 0.0032 - Aluminium waterproof rivets Ø 4 HRP0500 2CTH050012Z0000 3660308521514 500 0.0033 - Stainless steel clip for waterproof cladding for 30 x 2 HCB4240 2CTH0HCB4240 3660308522399 1 0.002Lightning air terminal rangeConductor fasteners123122138 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsWaterproof fixing on cladding– fixing: on cladding and roofs of galvanized or thermo-lacquered steel plate (code: 2CTH0FDT0045)– fixing: on tiles or fibro-cement (code: 2CTH0FDT0046)– fixed entirely from outside and guaranteeing perfect watertightness. May be equipped with a bakeliteinsulator– drill hole Ø 10 mm.Use Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgMetal cladding dowel L. 15 mm FDT0045 2CTH0FDT0045 3660308522191 1 0.030Tiles or cement fibre dowel L. 25 mm FDT0046 2CTH0FDT0046 3660308522207 1 0.040Insulating supports– fixing: strip on timber framework or thatch– material: bakelite– supplied complete with wood screws– 2CTH0HIS6000 for flat conductors, 2CTH0HAR... for round conductors.Insulator height H Colour Thread Ø Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)mm mm kg35 black 6 HIS6000 2CTH0HIS6000 3660308522542 1 0.050– grey 8 HAR2645 2CTH0HAR2645 – 1 0.050– copper 8 HAR2646 2CTH0HAR2646 3660308522276 1 0.050Wall fixing accessories for round conductorsPVC fixtures– fixing: on 30 mm wide strip with isolation from supporting material (screw hole spacing 15 mm– colour: grey or copper.Use Colour Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgMasonry Grey Grey PVC fixture HAR2445 2CTHCHAR2445 3660308523341 1 0.007Masonry Grey Grey PVC fixture with screw kit HAR2845 2CTH0HAR2845 3660308522313 1 0.016Masonry Copper Copper PVC fixture with screw kit HAR2846 2CTH0HAR2846 3660308522320 1 0.016Masonry fixture– for round conductor: supplied with wood screw– material: copper.Description Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)kgCopper fixing accessory for Ø 8 mm SCP3000 2CTHCSCP3000 3660308524409 1 0.046Pylon or ladder fixing accessories for round or flat conductorStainless steel collars– use: to clamp conductors on tube supports– material: stainless steel.Tightening Ø Type Order code EAN code Pkg(pcs)Weight(1 pce)mm kg30 to 50 HCI2419 2CTH050001Z0000 – 20 0.01540 to 70 HCI2420 2CTH050003Z0000 – 20 0.02060 to 100 HCI2421 2CTHCHCI2421 – 1 0.025Lightning air terminal rangeConductor fastenersABB OPR lightning protection systems | 39Test joint– enables the disconnection of the conductors for insulation and earthing measurements– material: die-cast brass– no need to drill the conductors– accommodate Ø 6 and 8 mm round conductors and 30 x 2 or 30 x 3 mm flat conductors– guarantee perfect conductivity, low impedance– fixed by brackets with wood or metal screws, etc.– in accordance with NF C 17-102 standard.Description Dimensions Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm kgTest joint 70 x 50 x 20 JCH2708 2CTH0JCH2708 3660308522719 0.390Note: Down conductors have to overlap on the whole height of the test joint.Protecting flats and tubes– 2 m galvanized steel flats or tubes to protect the down conductors against mechanical impact– generally placed between the test joint and the ground– delivered complete with 3 clamps (bracket, wood screw).Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kgProtecting flat for strip (delivered by 2) TPH2705 2CTH0TPH2705 3660308522917 1.000Protecting tube for round conductor (delivered by 2) TPH2768 2CTH0TPH2768 3660308522924 1.000Inspection earth pit– used to house the test joint at ground level, the earth rod connections or earth interconnections– the 2CTH0RVH3073 and 2CTH0RVH3074 models are equipped with a copper bar enabling the interconnectionof 3 conductors or 2 conductors and a test joint.Description Dimensions Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm kg1 - Cast iron Ø ext. 190 RVH3071 2CTH0RVH3071 3660308522825 2.4002 - Yellow polyester concrete 350 x 250 RVH3072 2CTH0RVH3072 3660308522832 10.0003 - Yellow polyester concrete with earth bar 350 x 250 RVH3073 2CTH0RVH3073 3660308522849 10.0004 - Grey PVC with earth bar 300 x 300 RVH3074 2CTH0RVH3074 3660308522856 3.300Interconnection box for equipotential bonding– these boxes are fixed to the bottom of the down conductor and enable easy, accessible interconnectionand disconnection of the lightning earth termination system and the building's earth loop– they are made of a galvanized steel cover over a copper bar mounted on two insulators enabling the connectionof 2 conductors– delivered complete with wood screw brackets and earth identification labels.Description Dimensions Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm kgInterconnection box 150 x 65 x 65 BLH2707 2CTH0BLH2707 3660308522009 0.550Warning noticeDescription Dimensions Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm kgWarning notice 264 x 150 PSH2009 2CTH0PSH2009 3660308522757 0.010Lightning air terminal rangeEarth coupling accessories124340 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsOverviewEach down conductor in a lightning protection system must beconnected to an earth termination system designed to carryaway the lightning current. The earth termination system mustfulfil three indispensable conditions:– the earth termination resistance valueFrench and other international standards, as well as thetechnical requirements of a number of authorities stipulatean earth termination resistance value of less than 10 ohms.This value should be measured on the earth connectionisolated from any other conductive component.If the resistance value of 10 ohms cannot be achieved, theearth termination is nonetheless considered compliant if itis made up of at least 100 m of conductors or electrodes, each section measuring no more than 20 m (for level of protection2, 3 and 4) and 160 m (8 x 20 m) for level 1.– equipotential bondingStandards require the equipotential bonding of lightningearth termination system with the existing earthing systems.– inspection earth pitThe connection parts between lightning earth systemand electrical system test joint can be accessed by aninspection pit.General earth systemDuck's foot earth termination systemThe minimum earth termination system is made up of 25 m of30 x 2 mm tin-plated copper strip, split into 3 strands buried in3 trenches at a depth of 60 to 80 cm dug in a fan shape like aduck's foot: one end of the longest strand is connected to thetest joint, the two other strands being linked to a specialconnection known as a duck's foot connector.Standard list of materialDescription Type Order code EAN code Nb ofpcs or mDuck's foot connector RPO2840 2CTH0RPO2840 3660308522818 1 pcFlat conductor CPC2712 2CTH040003R0000 3660308523129 25 mNote: The earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning grid.Lightning air terminal rangeEarthing systemprotectionat30 x 2 mm strip3 m1 m from wall depth60 to 80 cm4 mstainlesssteel clampNB: the earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning gridDUCK'S FOOT SYSTEMFOR A MESHED CAGEduck'sfootconnectorprotectionat30 x 2 mm strip2 m1 m from wall depth60 to 80 cmstainless steelclampNB: the earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning grid 2 m rodearth rod clampROD TRIANGLE EARTHTERMINATION SYSTEM DUCK'S FOOT EARTH TERMINATIONSYSTEM WITH EARTH RODSprotectionat30 x 2 mm strip8 to 12 mdepth 6 to 9 m 60 to 80 cmduck'sfootconnectorstainlesssteel clampNB: the earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning gridrodearth rodclamp1 m from wallRod triangle earth termination systemWhen the site topography does not lend itself to the installationof a duck's foot as described above, an earth terminationsystem can be developed using at least 3 copper earth rodseach with a minimum length of 2 m, buried vertically in theground: the rods should be spaced at intervals of about 2 m andat a mandatory distance of 1 m to 1.5 m from the foundations.Standard list of materialRod systemDescription Type Order code EAN code Nb ofpcs or mDuck's foot connector RPO2840 2CTH0RPO2840 3660308522818 1 pcFlat conductor CPC2712 2CTH040003R0000 3660308523129 10 mSelf-extensible earth rod PVB2010 2CTHCPVB2010 3660308524379 6 pcsManual snap tool Ø 20 BMA0020 2CTH0BMA0020 3660308522030 1 pcEarth rod clamp CRH4020 2CTH0CRH4020 3660308522160 3 pcsNote: The earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning grid.Duck's foot earth termination system with earth rodsIf the soil type is not altogether suitable for a duck's foot connector, a combination of duck's foot and earth rods will significantlyenhance protection. In this case, the end of each duck'sfoot connector strand is connected to an earth rod.Standard list of materialRod systemDescription Type Order code EAN code Nb ofpcs or mDuck's foot connector RPO2840 2CTH0RPO2840 3660308522818 1 pcFlat conductor CPC2712 2CTH040003R0000 3660308523129 25 mStandard copper-bondrod, 2 mPCS1920 2CTHCPCS1920 3660308524249 3 pcsManual snap tool Ø 20 BMA0020 2CTH0BMA0020 3660308522030 1 pcEarth rod clamp CRH4020 2CTH0CRH4020 3660308522160 3 pcsNote: The earth termination is covered by a red or orange warning grid.These here before configurations cannot guarantee an earthresistance of 10 Ω in case of bad soil resistivity. The valuesobtained by these configurations depends of the soil resistivity.ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 41Earth rods– the use of a reusable treated steel snap tool is compulsory to protect the rod head when driving inDescription Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kg1 - Galvanized steel rod Ø 20 - L. 1 m PVB2010 2CTHCPVB2010 3660308524379 2.4002 - Standard copper-bond earth rod Ø 19 - L. 2.10 m PCS1920 2CTHCPCS1920 3660308524249 3.9403 - Manual snap tool Ø 20 BMA0020 2CTH0BMA0020 3660308522030 0.3004 - Earth rod clamp for 30 x 2 strip CRH4020 2CTH0CRH4020 3660308522160 0.150(1) 2CTHCPVB2010: high resistance steel tube hot galvanized.(2) 2CTHCPCS1920: high corrosion resistance due to a 250 µ thickness of electrolytically plated copper.(3) 2CTH0BMA0020: manual snap tool - one for 3 rods to be hammered in.Duck foot connectors– zinc-plated, die-cast brass parts enabling the connection of three of four strands of tin-plated copper30 x 2 mm conductor strip– variable strand angles– perfect electrical conductivity and strong tightening.Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kgDuck foot connector Ø 85 - thickness 30 mm RPO2840 2CTH0RPO2840 3660308522818 0.800Earth grids– earth grids are made of solid red copper with a mesh size of 115 x 40 mm.Thickness Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm kg3 Earth grid 0.66 x 0.92 m (4) GMD6692 2CTHCGMD6692 3660308523303 3.8003 Earth grid 1.00 x 2.00 m (5) GMD1020 2CTHCGMD1020 3660308523297 8.400(4) Equivalent to 18 m of Ø 8 mm round conductor.(5) Equivalent to 54 m of Ø 8 mm round conductor.Digital earth test set– battery-powered and watertight the 2CTHCACA6460 is a device that is easy to use and has been designedfor operation in the field– on all installations requiring the qualification of electrical or lightning earth termination system, using traditionalearth rod methods, the 2CTHCACA6460 measures the earth resistance and resistivity of the soil.Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kg1 - Digital earth and resistivity test set ACA6460 2CTHCACA6460 3660308523044 1.300Housing for test set with accessories (4 leads + 4 rods) ACA2025 2CTHCACA2025 3660308523006 6.000Lightning air terminal rangeEarthing system1 234142 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsABB OPR lightning protection systems | 43Antenna mast arrester– use: temporary grounding of an antenna mast in the event of lightning impact directly on the antenna– in normal circumstances, the arrester insulates the antenna from the earth, but also from the LightningProtection System in the event of a lightning strike on the LPS– the arrester can also be used to earth metallic structures such as pylons, motor chassis, roof equipment, etc.– characteristics:- dynamic excitation < 1800 V- static excitation voltage < 1100 V- nominal discharge current: 25 kA- dimensions: 280 x 45 x 30 mm- delivered complete with clamp for mast attachment.Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kgAntenna mast arrester EAH4005 2CTH0EAH4005 3660308522177 0.400Lightning stroke counter– this counter, which is connected in series to a lightning down conductor, records lightning current– this counter (1) uses the current induced in a secondary circuit to activate an electromechanical counter. Ithas been tested in High Voltage laboratories and in situ– Counter (1 and 2) equipped with an external dry contact when lightning current flow through it.Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kg1 - Lightning stroke counter with a flat conductor connection CCF2005 2CTH060001R0000 3660308521279 0.4102 - Lightning stroke counter and recorder CIF2006 2CTH0CIF2006 3660308522146 0.3403 - Lightning stroke LCD counter fit directly on round or flat conductor CCF2006 2CTH060002R0000 3660308524744 0.1OPR test kitOPR lightning air terminal testing kit– the testing kit needs a contact with the OPR tip in one hand, and the bottom of the pole or the downconductor in the other hand– it tests the OPR electronics by activating the high-voltage internal circuit of the OPR.Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kg4 - ESE pole test PMH8000 2CTH080004R0000 3660308522740 6.0005 - ESE test system VDT0001 2CTH080001R0000 3660308521309 1.900Lightning air terminal rangeEquipotential bonding2415344 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsMeshed conductorsTypical installationFlat or round conductorconnectionp.36Hooksp.37Test couplingp.39Equipotential boxp.39Lightning stroke counter(every 4 down conductor)p.43Conductorsupporting studp.37Fixture accessoriesfor air terminalsp.45 Air terminalp.45Ruberalu bracketsp.37Protecting flatp.39Earth rods with clampsp.41Earth rod clampp.41Type 1 surge protective devicehighly recommendedABB OPR lightning protection systems | 45Air terminalMeshed cage air terminals are designed for easy, rapid installation on a wide range of structures.They are made up of:– a cylindrical (Ø 18 mm) bright nickel-plated copper cylinder tapered at the top and with a threaded lowersection– a bright tapped nickel-plated brass base M 10 for the connection and intersection of flat or round conductors.They are adaptable to all fixtures shown below.Length Material Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)m kg0.50 Nickel copper HPC5000 2CTH0HPC5000 3660308522603 1.500Fixture accessories for air terminalsVertical mounting– material: tin-plated or galvanized steel.Length Hole Ø Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)cm mm kg10 16 1 - To bed SSH5001 2CTHCSSH5001 – 0.12016 8 2 - To bold STH5002 2CTHCSTH5002 3660308524423 0.07013 10 3 - S/Steel threaded base EFH5003 2CTH0EFH5003 3660308522184 0.100Supporting plates– material: stainless steel– fixing: 2x Ø 10 mm bolt holes (centerline distance 93 mm).Length x width Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm kg50 x 50 1 - Flat plate PM PSH5002 2CTH0PSH5002 3660308522795 0.100120 x 50 Flat plate GM PSH5004 2CTH0PSH5004 3660308522801 0.200120 x 50 2 - Swivelling plate SOH5006 2CTH0SOH5006 3660308522863 0.460250 x 120 3 - Roof ridge plate PFH5000 2CTH0PFH5000 3660308522733 0.500Offset plate– material: galvanized steel– fixing: by M8 screw.Description Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)kg15 cm offset plate PDH5015 2CTHCPDH5015 3660308524263 0.200Adaptor sleeve– use: to fix air terminals to existing supports (max. Ø 50 mm)– material: stainless steel.Max. tightening length L Type Order code EAN code Weight(1 pce)mm kg100 HMA5010 2CTH0HMA5010 3660308522566 0.400Meshed conductorsAccessories1 233 1246 | ABB OPR lightning protection systems2CTB899800R7000 IMH3000 282CTB899800R7100 IMH6000 282CTB899800R7500 IMH4500 282CTH010001R0000 HPI3001 292CTH010002R0000 HPI3002 292CTH010004R0000 PTS3000 292CTH040001R0000 CPC0025 362CTH040002R0000 CPC0050 362CTH040003R0000 CPC2712 362CTH040005R0000 CRC8000 362CTH040006R0000 CRC8001 362CTH050001Z0000 HCI2419 382CTH050003Z0000 HCI2420 382CTH050011Z0000 HRP0100 372CTH050012Z0000 HRP0500 372CTH050013R0000 CDH5001 332CTH050014R0000 CDV5001 332CTH050015R0000 PBC0125 332CTH050016R0000 PBL0290 332CTH050018R0000 PDV0190 332CTH050020R0000 CCC6001 332CTH050021R0000 CCT5001 332CTH050022R0000 FHF0001 322CTH050023Z0000 FDV5625 322CTH050026R0000 KFR3542 312CTH050027R0000 KFP0035 312CTH050028R0000 KFR0050 312CTH050030Z0000 CPB3020 372CTH050031Z0000 CIP3020 372CTH050032Z0000 CMA3020 372CTH050033R0000 HEF2107 352CTH050034R0000 HEF2313 352CTH060001R0000 CCF2005 432CTH060002R0000 CCF2006 432CTH070001R0000 MAT3001 312CTH070002R0000 MAT3002 312CTH070005R0000 RAL3502 312CTH070006R0000 RAL3503 312CTH070007R0000 RAL4202 312CTH070008R0000 RAL4203 312CTH070009R0000 RAL5002 312CTH070010R0000 RAL5003 312CTH070011R0000 MAT3503 312CTH080001R0000 VDT0001 432CTH080004R0000 PMH8000 432CTH0BLH2707 BLH2707 392CTH0BMA0020 BMA0020 402CTH0BRC2780 BRC2780 362CTH0BRC2781 BRC2781 362CTH0BRH2779 BRH2779 362CTH0BRI2779 BRI2779 362CTH0BRX3780 BRX3780 362CTH0CIF2006 CIF2006 432CTH0CRH4020 CRH4020 402CTH0EAH4005 EAH4005 432CTH0EFH5003 EFH5003 452CTH0FDT0045 FDT0045 382CTH0FDT0046 FDT0046 382CTH0HAA2673 HAA2673 372CTH0HAR2645 HAR2645 382CTH0HAR2646 HAR2646 382CTH0HAR2745 HAR2745 372CTH0HAR2746 HAR2746 372CTH0HAR2845 HAR2845 382CTH0HAR2846 HAR2846 382CTH0HBR2717 HBR2717 372CTH0HCB4240 HCB4240 372CTH0HCL2642 HCL2642 372CTH0HCP2651 HCP2651 332CTH0HIS6000 HIS6000 382CTH0HMA5010 HMA5010 452CTH0HPC5000 HPC5000 452CTH0HPP4523 HPP4523 352CTH0HPS0010 HPS0010 332CTH0HPS2630 HPS2630 342CTH0HRI3501 HRI3501 342CTH0HST2044 HST2044 352CTH0JCH2708 JCH2708 392CTH0PFH5000 PFH5000 452CTH0PSH2009 PSH2009 392CTH0PSH5002 PSH5002 452CTH0PSH5004 PSH5004 452CTH0RPO2840 RPO2840 402CTH0RVH3071 RVH3071 392CTH0RVH3072 RVH3072 392CTH0RVH3073 RVH3073 392CTH0RVH3074 RVH3074 392CTH0SOH5006 SOH5006 452CTH0STP5030 STP5030 362CTH0STP5050 STP5050 362CTH0STP5075 STP5075 362CTH0STP5100 STP5100 362CTH0TPH2705 TPH2705 392CTH0TPH2768 TPH2768 392CTHCACA2025 ACA2025 412CTHCACA6460 ACA6460 412CTHCBRP2680 BRP2680 362CTHCCPG3035 CPG3035 362CTHCCPI2711 CPI2711 362CTHCCRE2700 CRE2700 352CTHCGMD1020 GMD1020 412CTHCGMD6692 GMD6692 412CTHCHAR2445 HAR2445 382CTHCHCI2421 HCI2421 382CTHCHCO0071 HCO0071 322CTHCHCO0752 HCO0752 322CTHCHFC4002 HFC4002 332CTHCHFP2650 HFP2650 332CTHCHPA0109 322CTHCHPA0112 322CTHCHPA0115 322CTHCHPA0118 322CTHCHPA0209 322CTHCHPA0212 322CTHCHPA0215 322CTHCHPA0218 322CTHCHPA0309 322CTHCHPA0312 322CTHCHPA0315 322CTHCHPA0318 322CTHCHPA0409 322CTHCHPA0412 322CTHCHPA0415 322CTHCHPA0418 322CTHCHPB2772 HPB2772 372CTHCHPV2771 HPV2771 372CTHCPCS1920 PCS1920 402CTHCPDH5015 PDH5015 452CTHCPRC8000 PRC8000 362CTHCPVB2010 PVB2010 402CTHCSCP3000 SCP3000 382CTHCSSH5001 SSH5001 452CTHCSTH5002 STH5002 452CTHCTLB5002 TLB5002 352CTHCTLB5004 TLB5004 352CTHCTLB5005 TLB5005 352CTHCTSH4525 TSH4525 35IndexOrder code classificationOrder code Type Page Order code Type Page Order code Type PageABB OPR lightning protection systems | 47ACA2025 2CTHCACA2025 41ACA6460 2CTHCACA6460 41BLH2707 2CTH0BLH2707 39BMA0020 2CTH0BMA0020 40BRC2780 2CTH0BRC2780 36BRC2781 2CTH0BRC2781 36BRH2779 2CTH0BRH2779 36BRI2779 2CTH0BRI2779 36BRP2680 2CTHCBRP2680 36BRX3780 2CTH0BRX3780 36CCC6001 2CTH050020R0000 33CCF2005 2CTH060001R0000 43CCF2006 2CTH060002R0000 43CCT5001 2CTH050021R0000 33CDH5001 2CTH050013R0000 33CDV5001 2CTH050014R0000 33CIF2006 2CTH0CIF2006 43CIP3020 2CTH050031Z0000 37CMA3020 2CTH050032Z0000 37CPB3020 2CTH050030Z0000 37CPC0025 2CTH040001R0000 36CPC0050 2CTH040002R0000 36CPC2712 2CTH040003R0000 36CPG3035 2CTHCCPG3035 36CPI2711 2CTHCCPI2711 36CRC8000 2CTH040005R0000 36CRC8001 2CTH040006R0000 36CRE2700 2CTHCCRE2700 35CRH4020 2CTH0CRH4020 40EAH4005 2CTH0EAH4005 43EFH5003 2CTH0EFH5003 45FDT0045 2CTH0FDT0045 38FDT0046 2CTH0FDT0046 38FDV5625 2CTH050023Z0000 32FHF0001 2CTH050022R0000 32GMD1020 2CTHCGMD1020 41GMD6692 2CTHCGMD6692 41HAA2673 2CTH0HAA2673 37HAR2445 2CTHCHAR2445 38HAR2645 2CTH0HAR2645 38HAR2646 2CTH0HAR2646 38HAR2745 2CTH0HAR2745 37HAR2746 2CTH0HAR2746 37HAR2845 2CTH0HAR2845 38HAR2846 2CTH0HAR2846 38HBR2717 2CTH0HBR2717 37HCB4240 2CTH0HCB4240 37HCI2419 2CTH050001Z0000 38HCI2420 2CTH050003Z0000 38HCI2421 2CTHCHCI2421 38HCL2642 2CTH0HCL2642 37HCO0071 2CTHCHCO0071 32HCO0752 2CTHCHCO0752 32HCP2651 2CTH0HCP2651 33HEF2107 2CTH050033R0000 35HEF2313 2CTH050034R0000 35HFC4002 2CTHCHFC4002 33HFP2650 2CTHCHFP2650 33HIS6000 2CTH0HIS6000 38HMA5010 2CTH0HMA5010 45HPB2772 2CTHCHPB2772 37HPC5000 2CTH0HPC5000 45HPI3001 2CTH010001R0000 29HPI3002 2CTH010002R0000 29HPP4523 2CTH0HPP4523 35HPS0010 2CTH0HPS0010 33HPS2630 2CTH0HPS2630 34HPV2771 2CTHCHPV2771 37HRI3501 2CTH0HRI3501 34HRP0100 2CTH050011Z0000 37HRP0500 2CTH050012Z0000 37HST2044 2CTH0HST2044 35IMH3000 2CTB899800R7000 28IMH4500 2CTB899800R7500 28IMH6000 2CTB899800R7100 28JCH2708 2CTH0JCH2708 39KFP0035 2CTH050027R0000 31KFR0050 2CTH050028R0000 31KFR3542 2CTH050026R0000 31MAT3001 2CTH070001R0000 31MAT3002 2CTH070002R0000 31MAT3503 2CTH070011R0000 31PBC0125 2CTH050015R0000 33PBL0290 2CTH050016R0000 33PCS1920 2CTHCPCS1920 40PDH5015 2CTHCPDH5015 45PDV0190 2CTH050018R0000 33PFH5000 2CTH0PFH5000 45PMH8000 2CTH080004R0000 43PRC8000 2CTHCPRC8000 36PSH2009 2CTH0PSH2009 39PSH5002 2CTH0PSH5002 45PSH5004 2CTH0PSH5004 45PTS3000 2CTH010004R0000 29PVB2010 2CTHCPVB2010 40RAL3502 2CTH070005R0000 31RAL3503 2CTH070006R0000 31RAL4202 2CTH070007R0000 31RAL4203 2CTH070008R0000 31RAL5002 2CTH070009R0000 31RAL5003 2CTH070010R0000 31RPO2840 2CTH0RPO2840 40RVH3071 2CTH0RVH3071 39RVH3072 2CTH0RVH3072 39RVH3073 2CTH0RVH3073 39RVH3074 2CTH0RVH3074 39SCP3000 2CTHCSCP3000 38SOH5006 2CTH0SOH5006 45SSH5001 2CTHCSSH5001 45STH5002 2CTHCSTH5002 45STP5030 2CTH0STP5030 36STP5050 2CTH0STP5050 36STP5075 2CTH0STP5075 36STP5100 2CTH0STP5100 36TLB5002 2CTHCTLB5002 35TLB5004 2CTHCTLB5004 35TLB5005 2CTHCTLB5005 35TPH2705 2CTH0TPH2705 39TPH2768 2CTH0TPH2768 39TSH4525 2CTHCTSH4525 35VDT0001 2CTH080001R0000 432CTHCHPA0109 322CTHCHPA0112 322CTHCHPA0115 322CTHCHPA0118 322CTHCHPA0209 322CTHCHPA0212 322CTHCHPA0215 322CTHCHPA0218 322CTHCHPA0309 322CTHCHPA0312 322CTHCHPA0315 322CTHCHPA0318 322CTHCHPA0409 322CTHCHPA0412 322CTHCHPA0415 322CTHCHPA0418 32IndexType classificationType Order code Page Type Order code Page Type Order code Page48 | ABB OPR lightning protection systemsBrochureLightning protection systemPulsar range1TXH000084B0204hélita® lightning protection systemsPulsar®range1TXH 000 084 B0202_Pulsar-Lightning-Protection_Version ABB.indd 1 25/11/2011 10:21:33Pararrayos hélita®Gama Pulsar®1TXH 000 084 B0702_Pararrayos-Pulsar_Version ABB.indd 1 04/10/2011 07:54:45BrochureLightning protection systemSpanish version1TXH000084B0703BrochureLightning protection systemEarly streamer emission air terminal1TXH000134B0205Marketing toolsCatalogs and brochuresMain catalogSystem pro M compact®Surge and lightning protection solutions1TXH000083C0203Main catalogueSystem pro M compact®Surge and lightning protection solutionsABB solutions for photovoltaicsProtection and other modular devicesBrochureABB solutions for photovoltaicsProtection and other modular devices2CDC002093B0201Technical catalogSystem pro M compact®DIN Rail components for low voltage installation2CSC400002D0212BrochureContact us1TXH 000 045 B0202 - Printed in France (V 12.2010 Lamazière)Autoprotected surge arrestersNew OVR PLUS range1TXH 000 045 B0202 - Autoprotected Surge Arresters.indd 7 10/12/2010 12:18:30BrochureLightning and overvoltage protectionWater treatment plants1TXH000444B0201BrochureAutoprotected surge arrestersNew OVR PLUS range1TXH000045B0203BrochureEarthing, lightning and overvoltage protectionWind turbines1TXH000215B0201ABB solutions for photovoltaicsProtection and other modular devicesEarthing, lightning and overvoltageprotectionWind turbines1TXH000215B0201_Wind turbines.indd 1 28/01/2013 15:23:10ABB OPR lightning protection systems | 49ABB FranceLightning Protection GroupDepending where we live, we are not all equal in front of the risk of lightning.For example there is more than 2 million lightning strokes per year on the French territory.They constitute a real risk for all humans and building structures.ABB as lightning protection specialist can offer you a range of lighting air terminals (simplerod or early streamer emission system OPR) in order to protect your facilities and personnel.All these products are developed by the ABB centre of excellence for lightning based inBagnères de Bigorre - France; they are tested in laboratory as well as in situ to recreatenatural conditions in the Pic du Midi (French Pyrenees).Lightning protection specialists?Absolutely.1TXH000247C0203 - Printed in France (06.2016 PDF)NoteWe reserve the right to make technical changes ormodify the contents of this document without priornotice.ABB does not accept any responsibility whatsoeverfor potential errors or possible lack of information inthis document.We reserve all rights in this document and in thesubject matter and illustrations contained therein.Any reproduction, disclosure to third parties orutilization of its contents – in whole or in parts – isforbidden without prior written consent of ABB.Copyright© 2016 ABB - All rights reservedContact usABB FranceElectrification Products DivisionPôle Foudre Soulé & Hélita1, avenue des Victimes du 11 juin 1944BP 303F-65203 Bagnères-de-Bigorre / FranceSN Engineering9990645119
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Document RevisionsRevisions to the IALA Document are to be noted in the table prior to the issue of a revised document.Date Page / Section Revised Requirement for RevisionDecember 2005 Entire document Reformatted to reflect IALA documentation hierarchyApril 2012 Reformatted to reflect the news standards Table of ContentsDOCUMENT REVISIONS 2TABLE OF CONTENTS 3INDEX OF TABLES 4INDEX OF FIGURES 51 INTRODUCTION 62 BRIEF HISTORY ON THE ORIGIN OF LIGHTINING RODS 63 SCOPE 84 NEEDS ANALYSIS 85 TYPES OF LIGHTNING DAMAGE 105.1 Direct Strike 105.2 Indirect Strike 106 DESIGN 106.1 The Basics of Lightning Protection 106.1.1 Protection Angle Method 106.1.2 Rolling Sphere Method 116.2 Installing the lightning protection and equipotencializing the structure 136.3 Design Approach 166.3.1 Mandatory Protection 166.3.2 Highly Desirable Protection 166.3.3 Recommended Additional Measures 167 INSTALLATION 167.1 Protection of Structures 167.1.1 General 167.1.2 Independent Buildings and Structures 177.1.3 Steel Lattice Towers 187.1.4 Floating Aids 187.2 Bonding 197.2.1 Services 197.2.2 Electricity Supply 207.2.3 Telephone Circuits 207.2.4 Water Supply 207.2.5 Gas Supply 207.3 Structural Metalwork 207.3.1 General 207.3.2 Weight Tubes 207.3.3 Stairway Handrails 217.4 Cable distribution systems 217.4.1 Conduit 217.4.2 Trunking 217.4.3 Cable Trays 217.4.4 Fire Detection Circuits 227.4.5 Equipment Cabinets and Cubicles 227.4.6 Sensor, Control and Data Cables 227.4.7 Radio Communication Antennas and Feeder Cables 227.5 Radio Beacon Antennas 227.5.1 Earth Mat 227.5.2 Antenna Feeder Cable 227.5.3 Antenna Support Structures 237.6 Fog Detectors 237.6.1 Fog Signals 237.6.2 Emergency Lights 237.6.3 Solar Photovoltaic Arrays 237.6.4 Generators 237.6.5 Fuel Storage Tanks 237.6.6 Fuel Level Sensors 237.6.7 Radar Antennas 247.7 Surge Protection 247.7.1 General 247.7.2 Electricity Supplies 247.7.3 Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS) 247.7.4 Solar Photovoltaic Arrays 247.7.5 Telephone, Data, Control and Monitoring Circuits 257.7.6 Co axial and Screened Circuits 257.8 Earthing 257.8.1 General 257.8.2 On Soil 277.8.3 On Rock 287.8.4 On Thin Soil 287.8.5 Sea Earth Electrodes 288 PERIODIC INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE 298.1 Inspection 298.2 Testing 298.2.1 General 298.2.2 Testing Earth Electrode Resistance 298.2.3 Testing Earth Electrodes on Rock 308.3 Maintenance of Surge Arrestors 318.4 Records 318.5 Maintenance 319 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS 31ANNEX A INFORMATION ABOUT RADIUM-226, AMERICIUM-241 AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE HUMAN BEINGS 33ANNEX B RISK ANALYSIS (EXAMPLE) 35ANNEX C WENNER METHOD 36ANNEX D CALCULATION SHEET TO DETERMINE THE RESISTIVITY OF THE SOIL (EXAMPLE). 38Index of TablesTable 1 Extract from ???? 12 Index of FiguresFigure 1 Benjamin Franklin experience 7Figure 2 Some types of radioactive lightning rods 7Figure 3 Piezoelectric lightning rod 8Figure 4 Dielectric lightning rod 8Figure 5 Pulse generator lightning rod 8Figure 6 Keraunic levels worldwide 9Figure 7 Protection Angle Method (Inverted Cone) 11Figure 8 Rolling Sphere 11Figure 9 Verification of protection by the rolling sphere model (source: Technical Guide Stop-ray DGE) 12Figure 10 Equipotencialization 13Figure 11 Instalation of the horizontal ring 14Figure 12 Sketch illustrating various bonding and earthing arrangements 15Figure 13 Arrangements loops 17Figure 14 Lightning protection system 18Figure 15 Example of bonds 19Figure 16 Arrangements for routing cables 20Figure 17 Earth connection 21Figure 18 Different types of earth electrodes 26Figure 19 Aluminothermic Welding 28Figure 20 Preferred method of measurement the earth electrode resistance 30Figure 21 Wenner method 36Figure 22 Connection scheme for ground resistivity measuring 37 Guideline on the Protection of Lighthouses and Aids to Navigation against damage from lightning1 INTRODUCTIONLightning is an atmospheric discharge of electricity accompanied by thunder, which typically occurs during thunderstorms.Lightning generates the following effects:• Thermal blowouts;• Electrodynamics;• Rise in the earth voltage (risk of electrocution);• Over voltages of several thousand volts and destructive induced currents (damage to electrical and electronic equipment, interruption of operation).A lightning protection system needs to be designed to ensure that the lightning discharge is diverted away from the equipment that is to be protected. To do this a path with very low impedance to earth has to be provided such that the discharge occurs and the equipment remains in a protected zone similar to an umbrella and rain.Protection against the effect of lightning is based essentially on• Catching and discharging the current to earth;• Use of voltage protectors;• The passive protection of the installation.Protection from lightning can be achieved with a reasonable amount of success. Successful protection can be expensive; therefore the decision to protect should be made considering the cost of the equipment to be protected or the critical need of the equipment/service.To protect equipment to the maximum possible, a rolling sphere technique should be employed. This method would provide the best protection for both direct and indirect lightning strikes. The rolling sphere technique, using a 10 KA (45 meter radius) sphere, is recommended for determining the location of air terminals at all except the most rudimentary navigational facilities. For simple structures not exceeding 20 meters in height, the 45 degree zone of protection is adequate. Throughout the years, man has developed a series of devices for protection against lightning, generally called lightning rods.2 BRIEF HISTORY ON THE ORIGIN OF LIGHTINING RODSThe lightning rod was invented by Benjamin Franklin in 1752, when he discovered that lightning strikes were an electrical phenomenon. (See Figure 1) Figure 1 Benjamin Franklin experienceLightning rods are a very simple protection system, composed by an aerial termination (the rod), one or more down conductors and an earth termination.The system has the capability to intercept, guide and disperse the lightning energy coming from storm clouds into the soil, thus preventing the appearance of dangerous voltages and currents to man, animals and equipment contained in the volume to be protected.Its functioning is based on a physical phenomenon called “corona effect”, which consists in the ionization of air surrounding the rod’s tip when the electric field in the vicinity reaches a specific magnitude, thus creating a “preferred path” for the lightning strike to discharge on that tip and be further conducted to the soil, where it is dissipated.In 1914, with the objective of making the ionization more effective, Szillard, a Hungarian physicist, proposed the use of Radium-226 radiation sources on Franklin lightning rods after he detected an electrical current increase in a rod which contained radium salt and was submitted to an electric field.In 1931, Gustav Capart, a physicist from Belgium patented the first ionizing rod using radioactivity, but it was his son Alphonse that, in 1953, introduced several improvements in his father’s equipment for commercial purposes.The advantage in the use of the new device was the expected ionization of the atmosphere surrounding the rod, caused by the radioactive element. This fact would accelerate air ionization in the moment of the electric discharge, in order to increase the area of protection.It became commercially available by the end of the fifties, and many units had been installed since. Until the sixties, the commercial rods had Radium-226 and from that time onwards they were replaced by Americium-241, an element with lower cost and larger availability in the market. (See Figure 2). These radioactive lightning protection rods are now no longer commercially available. Figure 2 Some types of radioactive lightning rodsCurrently, there are in the market, some lightning rods with an ionizing device not radioactive, also called by ignition advance device, see Figures 3, 4 and 5.There are three types:• Piezoelectric – whose operation is based on air ionization by Venture and Piezoelectric effects which generates high voltages as the wind passes by.• Dielectric – whose design allows the generation of a high voltage between the two parts of the device, based on a dielectric effect.• Pulse generator – which have an electronic device which sends high frequency pulses. Some of them need an auxiliary power source. Figure 3 Piezoelectric lightning rod Figure 4 Dielectric lightning rod Figure 5 Pulse generator lightning rod3 SCOPEPersons and equipment within buildings can be at risk from lightning currents and associated voltages which may be conducted into the building as a consequence of a lightning strike to the building or associated services. Some equipment (e.g. electronic equipment, including computers) is especially susceptible to damage from over voltages in the electricity supply caused by lightning and such damage may occur even when the lightning strike is remote from the building (e.g. from a surge conducted into the building via the electricity supply).Measures should to be taken to protect persons and equipment within buildings from the effects of lightning.These guidelines describe the practical design, installation, inspection and testing of lightning protection systems for marine aids to navigation structures, equipment and systems.These guidelines are not intended as a rigorous treatise on lightning protection and the reader should refer to their national or an international standard for a more complete description of the protection methods.4 NEEDS ANALYSISIt must be emphasized at the outset that complete protection from the effects of lightning is not always practicable. It is an unfortunate fact that “solid state” elements (transistors, integrated circuits, microchips etc.) essential to complex modern electronics systems, are inherently much more susceptible to damage from excessive voltages than older types of equipment.There are several factors that have to be considered when evaluating the need for lightning protection:• Is there enough of threats from lightning to justify protection?• Is the cost of replacement of the equipment sufficient to justify the cost of protection?• Is the service critical enough to justify the cost of protection?• The environment of the equipment must be considered because a dry ground plane will require an extensive installation while a wet one will provide a ground path with a minimum installation.A risk analysis based on British Standard 6651: 1992, “The protection of structures against lightning” suggests a need for protection at most Marine Aids to Navigation facilities with few exceptions.The protection level to be installed will be calculated by doing a risk analysis according to IEC 62305-2 (see the example in Annex B) and it will be proportional to the investment made. This standard takes in account the following parameters:• Size, composition and geographic location of the structure;• Occupancy and contents of the structure;• Definition of the surrounding area;• Environment nature (Keraunic level, see Figure. 6);• Consequent impact (result). Figure 6 Keraunic levels worldwideThe decision to install protection is based mainly on the vulnerability of the equipment contained within the installation or the structure itself. If the structure is particularly resilient against lightning strike (such as a metallic day mark) or contains no equipment vulnerable to a strike, protection is not warranted by the specifications.For most sites proper grounding installations for lighthouses and equipment accommodation are essential to minimise danger to personnel and damage to buildings. Simple and relatively inexpensive measures for the treatment of incoming telecommunication line circuits and electrical power supply circuits should give worthwhile additional protection, even to the modern types of communications and telemetry equipment.5 TYPES OF LIGHTNING DAMAGEThere are two main categories of lightning strike. In the first category (direct strike) the building or structure is struck by lightning and very high currents flow to earth (ground potential) via the lightning protection system and, in some cases, also via the fabric of the structure. The second type (indirect strike) is where other buildings, structures, trees or the ground some distance from the structure are struck and the current flows to the remote site. The potential (voltage) can be just as high in an indirect strike.5.1 Direct StrikeDuring a direct lightning strike on a building or structure, currents of up to 200, 000 Amps flow to earth. The electrical potential of the earth in the immediate vicinity of the strike may rise to several hundred kilovolts above that of its surroundings. Side flashing will occur between lightning conductors and any conducting surface which is not electrically bonded by means of a low impedance path to the lightning protection earth system. Very high, damaging, currents will flow in these side flashes if the conducting surface has a separate earth path (e.g. incoming services, buried cables etc.).5.2 Indirect StrikeLightning does not have to strike an aid to navigation for damage to be caused to it or its contents. As with the direct strike, the electrical potential of the earth in the area of the strike will rise rapidly to many kilovolts above normal and this transient voltage will be induced or conducted into any services (which have conducting parts) passing through or near the area of the strike. If these services are connected to an aid to navigation then the transient voltages will appear on that Aid to Navigation and may, if the services are not bonded to the aids’ lightning protection earth system, cause side flashing within the aid, even if the strike is several kilometres away. This is probably the most common form of lightning damage.6 DESIGN6.1 The Basics of Lightning ProtectionThe magnitude of a lightning discharge defies any attempt to block lightning current from damaging equipment. As a result, the basic philosophy of lightning protection is to divert the lightning current past personnel and vulnerable equipment along an efficient path to ground where it can safely dissipate.Currently there are generally two types of calculation methods to protect structures against lightning strikes:6.1.1 Protection Angle MethodThis method uses an inverted cone to define the angle of protection and is most suitable for tall, lone structures. (See Figure 7); Figure 7 Protection Angle Method (Inverted Cone)6.1.2 Rolling Sphere MethodThis method is applied when the area to be protected has an attached building(s). (See Figure 8); Figure 8 Rolling SphereIn some countries non-radioactive ionizing or pulse excided lightning rods are used. When these devices are to be employed for protection, then the roll sphere method is enhanced. Add Figure 9Implementing a lightning protection system in a lighthouse and aids to navigation must follow the following steps:1st. Determine the necessary level of protection for the structure concerned, by the risk analysis as detailed in section 4 above.2nd. Choose the suitable method of calculating the protection of a structure and apply this method.3rd. Choose the appropriate and suitable number of air terminator(s) according to the typology of the structure and the level protection calculated with risk analysis, Franklin tip, Faraday cage or no radioactive ignition advancing lightning rod.To determine the location of the air terminal(s), we may use the cone or rolling sphere techniques, according to table 1.Table 1 Extract from ????PROTECTION LEVEL Height of the vertex of the cone of protection (meters) (a) Rolling sphere radius (m) 10 20 30 40 50 60 Protection angle (degrees) (b) I(Very height) 45 20 © © © © 20II(height) 55 35 25 © © © 30III(Normal) 60 45 35 25 © © 45IV(weak) 65 55 45 35 30 25 60(a) – For different heights of these can be used a linear interpolation of values given for angles of protection. (b) – Semi-angle at the vertex of the cone.© - In this case, applies the method of rolling sphere.The following figure aims to simulate the areas protected by a lightning rod or rods assuming, a level of protection III (normal) with 45 meters of radius of the rolling sphere. Figure 9 Verification of protection by the rolling sphere model (source: Technical Guide Stop-ray DGE)Where non-radioactive ionizing or pulse excided lightning rods are used then the rolling sphere radius is enhance by the following formulaThis lighting rod method is ruled by the French Standard NF C 17-102 (1995), the Portuguese Standard NP4426 (2003) and the IEC 62305-1 to 5 norm. According to Portuguese Standard NP4426, the protection radius of a non-radioactive ignition advance lightning rod depends on the height of the surface to be protected, the ignition advance of the upward discharge and the initiation distance which was determined for the protection level in the risk analysis, which can be represented by the following formula: , For h> 5 metersEquation for Protection Radius CalculationWhere:Rp is the protection radius.h is the lightning rod height in relation to the horizontal plane that goes through the vertex of the element to protect.D = 20m for level I, 45m for level II e 60m for level III according to the specific risk analysis.∆L = ∆T of the lightning rod to be installed (refer to the tables of the manufacturer).Given the nature of the structure of the lighthouses with Annexes, the non-radioactive ignition advance lightning rod is a solution to be considered in the vast majority of the situations.6.2 Installing the lightning protection and equipotencializing the structureThe first stage in installing lightning protection is the location of suitable air terminations, down conductors and a ground termination network that will collect any lightning discharges and get them to earth with the minimum of disturbance. The design of the lightning termination network should be completed in accordance with appropriate national standards.The lightning road must be installed in the highest part of the dome above any antenna that may exist and be directly connected to the down cables.The dome, if metallic, must be properly equipotencialized and connected to the down cables in its lower part (See Figure 10). Figure 10 EquipotencializationAll metal components, like ladders, poles for antennas, balcony, structure for solar panels, etc., must be equipotencialized with the down cables.If the height of the lighthouse tower is over 20 meters, we should install horizontal rings in intervals not exceeding 20 meters connected with the down cables (See Figure11). Figure 11 Instalation of the horizontal ringThe minimum number of down cables for each lightning rod is two.The cables must be implemented in opposite sides whenever possible.Each down cable should have a removable linker installed about 3 meters above de earth and a mechanical protection between the ground and the removable linker.For down cables it is recommended the use of tinned copper rod with 8mm of diameter (50mm2-section) or tinned copper strip of 30x2mm.The down cables should be fixed to the structure by suitable clamps at a rate of 3 per meter whenever possible.For statistical analysis purposes, it is recommended to install a discharge meter in one of the down cables.The rolling sphere technique, using a 10 kA (45 metre radius) sphere, is recommended for determining the location of air terminations at all but the most rudimentary navigational facilities. For simple structures not exceeding 20 metre in height, the 45 degree zone of protection technique is adequate. The second stage and an equally important one, is bonding, shielding and interface protection. The concept here is that even with an efficient termination network, lightning is such a violent phenomena that large voltages and electromagnetic fields will still be created at the site and can cause damage.To illustrate this, Figure 12 shows a lighthouse and building powered by an overhead supply. The installation is remotely monitored though a telephone line. The lightning termination system in Figure 12 has been properly designed and an earth impedance of 2 ohms created to dissipate the lightning current. Bonding of the tower and building and the down conductor has resulted in very low down conductor resistance although the tower lighthouse may create a down conductor inductance of approximately 10 H. Figure 12 Sketch illustrating various bonding and earthing arrangements Even though the lightning termination network has been properly designed and installed, significant voltages will still be generated at this site during even a moderate discharge. If this installation is hit by a moderate lightning strike with a 1S rise time to 100 kA, 10kV will be generated across the inductance of the tower during the rising front of the strike. As the power supply cable for the light also runs up the tower and is connected to earth at each end, this voltage is impressed across this cable and more importantly across its terminations. Consequently these terminations (e.g. the lamp changer or the power supply output stage) will be damaged by over voltage if not correctly protected. During the same strike, 20 kV is also generated across the earthing impedance at the peak current of the strike. As the site is connected through the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) to a remote site not disturbed by the lightning strike, this voltage will be impressed across the interface to the PSTN line and the line itself. This will result in current flow from the site to the undisturbed remote earth, with resulting damage to the interface. The response to this problem is to use bonding to create equipotential zones at the site and to ensure that connections between these equipotential zones are suitably protected. In the example, bonding should be used at the top of the tower (at the light) and within the power supply building. The aim of this bonding is to ensure that during a strike no significant voltages are generated between equipment within each equipotential zone. Bonding should then be used to connect these equipotential zones efficiently and by the shortest path to the lightning protection system. If possible, only one connection should be made to the lightning protection down conductor from each equipotential zone in order to ensure that direct lightning current does not flow through the bonding network of the zone on its way to earth.The lightning protection system needs to be designed to ensure that the absolute minimum of voltage is generated along the lightning discharge path. Otherwise unnecessary voltage will be generated between the equipotential zones complicating the protection of interfaces connecting the zones. Protection of the interfaces and cables which interconnect the zones including cables from remote areas, for example PSTN lines, need to be designed to prevent damage given the voltages which are expected and the lightning protection termination system installed.6.3 Design ApproachThe installation of full lightning protection in accordance with these guidelines may not be cost effective for all lighthouses and aids to navigation. However, there are some measures which are considered essential.6.3.1 Mandatory ProtectionThe following measures should be undertaken:• Building and structure protection in accordance Structure Protection below;• Earthing in accordance with the section on earthing;• Bonding of incoming and outgoing electricity, telephone, water and gas services;• Installation of surge arrestors in all incoming and outgoing electrical and communications circuits.6.3.2 Highly Desirable ProtectionThe following measures should be undertaken:• Bonding of solar photo voltaic arrays, remote fog signals etc.;• Installation of bonding conductor(s) on cable trays and trucking;• Bonding of metal enclosures and backplanes in insulated enclosures;• Bonding of radio communications and radio beacon antenna feeder cable screens.6.3.3 Recommended Additional MeasuresThe following measures will further reduce the risk of damage:• Positioning control and monitoring equipment to reduce vertical cable runs;• Installation of surge arrestors on long power, telemetry, control and sensor cables;• Relocation of incoming services to allow short, direct bonding;• Additional external down conductors will reduce the current in internal conductors;• Use of distributed intelligence monitoring to reduce the number of sensor cables;• Use of fibre optics on long sensor runs;• Install surge arrestors in radio communications antenna feeder cables.• Concentrate the sensitive Aids to Navigation in a restricted area and provide a zone of protection encompassing the restricted area by the provision of surge arrestors fitted to all cables entering and leaving the zone.7 INSTALLATION7.1 Protection of Structures7.1.1 GeneralVertical down conductors of not less than 50mm2 should be provided at evenly spaced horizontal intervals of not less than 20m (10m if the structure exceeds 20m in height) around the perimeter of the outside of the building.Each down conductor should run vertically, sharp bends are to be avoided wherever possible and re-entrant loops exceeding 8d are not permitted (See Figure 13).Figure 13 Arrangements loopsEach earth electrode should have a test joint at about 300mm above ground levelAll down conductors should be connected together by a continuous horizontal (ring) conductor of not less than 50 mm2. This band should be located at the lowest possible point above the test joints. Where the structure exceeds 20m in height, additional ring conductors should be provided, spaced evenly throughout the height of the structure.It is essential that each down conductor should have a separate earth electrode.Existing down conductors should be inspected and tested. A test joint should be fitted if one does not already exist. The earth should be inspected and tested in accordance with Section 7.8 below.Where the aid to navigation is a lantern and it has a metal murette, each down conductor should have its top bonded to the murette. Where the lantern or lantern roof is nonconductive, an air terminal network should be provided at the highest point on the structure and all down conductors bonded to this network. The air termination should be in the form of a mesh of strip conductors set out so that no part of the roof is more than 5 metres from a conductor. Where vertical air termination finials are provided, these should be greater than 0.3m in height, located at intersections of the horizontal mesh and spaced not more than 10m apart. All metallic projections on or above the roof should be bonded to the air terminal. Where handrails are provided on the roof, these may form the air terminal provided that they are bonded at frequent intervals to a ring conductor which is bonded to the down conductors.7.1.2 Independent Buildings and StructuresWhere a station comprises two or more separate buildings e.g. lighthouse, generator building, fog signal house etc. each building should be provided with its own lightning protection system which should be interconnected to the main building lightning protection system by means of a conductor of not less than 50mm2. Services (telephone, mains electricity etc.) to these buildings should be bonded to the outbuilding lightning protection system in the same manner as for the main building.7.1.3 Steel Lattice TowersEach leg of a steel lattice tower should be provided with a lightning protection earth. These separate earths should be interconnected between the tower leg and the earth test joint; the interconnection should be further bonded to the main building lightning protection system (See Figure 14).Figure 14 Lightning protection system7.1.4 Floating AidsThe majority of floating aids such as light vessels, light floats, Lanbys and buoys are of metallic structure and form a Faraday cage effectively shielding sensitive electronic equipment mounted within the hull or superstructure. However, induced voltages are possible and can be avoided by ensuring that metallic enclosures are earthed to the metallic structure of the vessel. A discharge path to earth consisting of surge arrestors should be provided for radio and navigational equipment antennas.Plastic or GRP hulled vessels including buoys should be fitted with an air termination with a low impedance path to earth to avoid structural damage to metallic superstructure. The metallic superstructure may act as the air termination. The earth terminal should consist of copper or other conducting material not less than 0.25 m2 compatible with sea water and mounted such that it is permanently immersed below the water line.7.2 BondingFigure 15 Example of bonds7.2.1 ServicesAll incoming and outgoing services should be bonded to the lightning protection system at the point of entry into the building. These bonds should be as short and direct as possible, see Figure 15 above. The size of bonding conductor should be not less than 30mm2. Conductors used for compliance with current national wiring regulations are not suitable for lightning protection purposes.The appropriate utility provider may need to be consulted before this work is carried out. In some cases it may be necessary for the provider to relocate the point of entry into the building.Conductors entering the building could be carrying lightning currents or voltage transients and are considered to be “dirty”. Internal conductors after the earth bonding point, and surge protection where appropriate (see Section 7.3), are considered “clean”. It is essential that clean conductors are not routed near or parallel to dirty conductors. Figure 16 below shows the arrangement for routing cables to and from surge protectors. Figure 16 Arrangements for routing cables7.2.2 Electricity SupplyAll electricity circuits including station and domestic supplies should be protected. The minimum requirement is for the armour of underground cables to be bonded by means of a short, direct connection to the lightning protection system (Figure 15). On particularly vulnerable stations, e.g. those stations where the low voltage transformer is off site, and/or those with a high earth resistively may require additional protection in the form of surge suppression.7.2.3 Telephone CircuitsAll telephone circuits, including station and domestic circuits should be protected because, if only the telemetry circuit is protected, surges on the other circuits can induce high voltages into the protected circuits. The minimum requirement is for all telephone lines to be fitted with surge suppression at the point of entry/exit. Where the incoming telephone lines are in the form of an armoured underground cable, the local telephone company should be asked to allow bonding of the armour to the lightning protection system.7.2.4 Water SupplyIncoming metal water pipes, (or internal metal water pipes where the incoming supply is in plastic), should be bonded to the lightning protection system.7.2.5 Gas SupplyIncoming metal gas mains should be bonded to the lightning protection system on the consumer side of the meter.7.3 Structural Metalwork7.3.1 GeneralAll isolated metalwork, e.g. sector light pedestals, metal windows, rainwater pipes and metal soil pipes, should be bonded to the lightning protection system. Vertical metal pipes should be bonded at the top and bottom. Voltage drops in conductors are due to inductance rather than resistance, it is therefore essential that the bonding conductors are kept as short and straight as possible.7.3.2 Weight TubesThe weight tube probably forms the best lightning protection system for the installation (where it is still intact) and should be bonded to the lightning protection system at its lowest point. Even where the weight tube has been removed, totally or partially, the foundations may still provide a very useful addition to the main building earth system and should be utilised for this purpose, see Figure 17 below.Figure 17 Earth connection7.3.3 Stairway HandrailsAll metal handrails should be bonded to the lightning protection system.7.4 Cable distribution systems7.4.1 ConduitGalvanised steel conduit provides the best protection for cables against the effects of lightning, therefore this method is recommended for cables connecting vulnerable equipment. All joints should be screwed in to the full depth of the coupler.7.4.2 TrunkingMetal trunking provides the second best form of protection provided that the removable covers are permanently bonded by means of a permanent, flexible connection at each end.7.4.3 Cable Trays Metal cable trays form the third best (and most common) protection, provided that the following are adhered to:• Cable trays and trunking should not be used as the sole means of bonding. Because of the large number of joints and discontinuities in cable tray and trunking routes, there is a high risk of high resistance joints forming. It should be noted that stainless steel has a significantly higher resistively per unit length than aluminium, mild steel or copper.A continuous, insulated, copper conductor of at least 30mm2 should be provided on the full length of the cable tray and should be bonded to the tray at all joints and discontinuities. Any joints in the copper conductor should be soft soldered and bolted using spring washers, or riveted; connections from cabinets and cable trays etc. should be tinned to reduce the risk of electrolytic action. This conductor should be bonded to the lightning protection earth system at its lowest point. The preferred method would be to provide two equal conductors with a total cross section of at least 30mm2, one on each outer edge of the tray. Each conductor should be bonded as above.7.4.4 Fire Detection CircuitsBecause of the length of most of these cable runs, mineral insulated cables should be used, bonded to the lightning protection system at both ends.Alternatively cables meeting the requirements of IEC 60332 for flame retardant cables may be used. These should be fitted with surge arrestors at their point of entry and exit from the equipotential zone.7.4.5 Equipment Cabinets and CubiclesMetal equipment cabinets and cubicles should be bonded to the earth conductor on the cable tray or trunking by means of a short, direct, flexible conductor of not less then 6mm2 (16mm2 preferred). The use of non-metallic equipment housings should be avoided wherever possible but where these are used, the metal back plane should be bonded as for a metal housing.7.4.6 Sensor, Control and Data CablesAll interconnecting sensor, control and data cables should use screened cable. The screen should be bonded to the lightning protection earth conductor at both ends. (A cable screen, bonded at one end only, is ineffective at screening against lightning induced voltages). In the majority of cases, the effect of this on circulating currents is negligible. Where single point earthing is essential due to induced noise onto signal conductors, additional surge arrestors may be used to provide the earth at the remote end. In addition the use of double screen cables may be considered with the outer sheath earthed at both ends for lightning protection purposes and the inner sheath earthed at one end to minimise induced noise.Where external sensor, control or data cables are installed, e.g. fuel storage tanks, the cables should be fitted with a surge arrestor, earthed to the lightning protection system, at the point of entry to the building. Consideration should be given to implementing extended data cable runs for computers and distributed control systems using fibre optic cables which are inherently immune to damage by lightning discharge voltages. Fibre optic cables may have a metallic sheath which should be stripped well back (2m) from one end if electrical isolation is intended.Where long sensor cable runs exist these should use MICC cable with the copper sheath bonded at each end to the lightning protection system or bonded metal enclosure. Alternatively, standard sensor cables may be run in conduit, or be fitted with surge arrestors at their point of entry and exit from each equipotential zone.7.4.7 Radio Communication Antennas and Feeder CablesThe screens of all radio communication antenna feeder cables should be bonded to the lightning protection system at the antenna and again at the point of entry to the building. Where a surge arrestor is fitted, this should be at the point of entry to the building and should be bonded to the lightning protection system.The radio equipment should also be bonded to the lightning protection system.The mountings of single element antennas and the mounting pole of yagi antennas should be bonded by a short direct route to the building lightning protection system.7.5 Radio Beacon Antennas7.5.1 Earth MatThe radio beacon earth mat often forms a much better earth conductor than the lightning protection earths. It is essential that this earth mat is bonded to the station lightning protection system, using 50 mm2 copper tape or cable.7.5.2 Antenna Feeder CableThe screen of the radio beacon antenna feeder cable should be bonded to the earth mat at the antenna matching unit and to the station lightning protection earth at the point of entry to the building.7.5.3 Antenna Support StructuresAll antenna support structures should be connected to its own earth electrode and bonded to the radio beacon earth mat. If the earth resistance of the earth mat is greater than 10 ohms then additional earth rods may be required, depending upon ground conditions (e.g. rock).If the antenna support structure is a steel lattice tower then the earthing arrangements for lattice towers will apply.All ground anchors for guyed poles should be bonded to the earth mat.All building anchors for ‘T’ antennas etc. should be bonded to the building lightning protection system.7.6 Fog DetectorsFog detectors and their mountings should be bonded to the lightning protection system and the interconnecting cables should be screened (bonded at both ends) or run in metal conduit and surge protection should be provided.7.6.1 Fog SignalsThe metalwork of a fog signal should be bonded to the lightning protection system. Where the fog signal is remote from the lighthouse an earth conductor of not less than 30mm2 should be provided between the fog emitter and the building. This conductor should follow the same route as the emitter drive cables and should be bonded to the lightning earth at the point of entry into the building. Consideration may need to be given to providing a lightning protection earth at the fog emitter where this is at a considerable distance from the main building; if this is provided then the cross bonding conductor should not be less than 50 mm2.7.6.2 Emergency LightsWhere an emergency light is installed on the roof of the lantern, for example, it may be necessary to provide an air terminal above the emergency light (minimum height difference of 300mm), bonded to the building lightning protection system. In addition, surge protection should be provided at the point of entry into the building.7.6.3 Solar Photovoltaic ArraysPhoto voltaic (PV) arrays are vulnerable to lightning damage, particularly where they are located at a distance from the main building. A separate earth termination should be installed locally, connected to the array mounting frame. This should be bonded to the main lightning earth using a bonding conductor of not less than 50mm2, which should follow closely the route of the DC cables between the photovoltaic array and the main building. When assessing this requirement, the 20m rolling sphere technique should be used and account taken of the location of the photovoltaic array.All cables should be run either on cable tray, in conduit/trunking or tightly against earthed metalwork/conductor tapes.7.6.4 GeneratorsThe frame of the generator(s) should be bonded to the lightning protection system by means of a flexible conductor of not less than 30mm2.7.6.5 Fuel Storage TanksService tanks should be bonded to the lightning protection system.External storage tanks should be adequately earthed and cross bonded to the generator building lightning protection system. 7.6.6 Fuel Level SensorsLevel sensor connections etc. should be in screened cable, earthed at each end and ideally run in solid drawn metal conduit or MICC. The sensor wires should be fitted with a surge arrestor, bonded to the lightning protection system at the point of entry into the building. In extreme conditions consideration could be given to the use of self powered fibre optic sensors where the storage tank is remote from the main building.7.6.7 Radar AntennasRadar antennas consist of a rotating scanner mounted on a housing containing the drive motor and gearbox. This antenna assembly is connected to the transmitter via an electrically continuous, rectangular copper waveguide. Both the waveguide and the drive housing should be bonded to the vessel superstructure or in the case of a lighthouse to the lightning protection system, the latter at its point of entry into the lighthouse.7.7 Surge Protection7.7.1 GeneralAll incoming and outgoing power, telephone, data communications, telemetry sensor and control cables, and radio antenna feeder cables should be fitted with surge protection at (or as near as practicable) the point of entry into the building.All surge protectors should be installed in accordance with the manufacturers’ instructions.Owing to the nature of lighthouse installations, it is likely that there will be a significant number of vertical cable runs. This considerably increases the risk of both resistive coupled and induced transient over voltages being introduced into many of the internal power, control, monitoring and telecommunications circuits. It is, therefore, essential that each installation be assessed and appropriate surge suppression installed. Reference documents listed at the end of these guidelines should be used and, if necessary, the advice of consultants and manufacturers should be sought in making this assessment.7.7.2 Electricity Supplies• The type and rating of the protector should be appropriate for the supply voltage.• The protector should have continuous indication of its protection status.• The status indication should warn of protection failure between all combinations of conductors, including neutral to earth (otherwise a potentially dangerous neutral earth short could go undetected).• The protector should be rated for a peak discharge current of not less than 10kA, 8/20 microsecond waveform (8s rise time/20s 3dB pulse width).• The protector should limit transient over voltage to less than the equipment damage level. The peak transient let through voltage should not be exceeded for all combinations of conductors e.g. P N, N E and P E.• The protector should not interfere with or restrict the system’s normal operation; nor should it corrupt or shut down the power supply after operation.• The protector should not have a high earth leakage current.7.7.3 Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS)Despite some manufacturers’ claims to the contrary, most UPSs do not have surge protection suitable for lightning protection. It is essential that both the input and output (or input of each load) of each UPS is adequately protected.7.7.4 Solar Photovoltaic ArraysPhoto voltaic arrays, particularly those installed at a distance from the main building, should have surge protectors installed in the DC cables, at the point of entry into the building to protect the photo voltaic voltage regulator.Such devices for 12/24V DC systems should have minimal insertion loss and very small leakage current.7.7.5 Telephone, Data, Control and Monitoring CircuitsCircuits between buildings should be protected at BOTH ends in order to protect both pieces of equipment.The protective device should have the appropriate rating for the application e.g. a PSTN telephone surge protector is NOT suitable for telemetry I/O and vice versa;The protector should be capable of being installed in groups or individually with appropriate mounting and earth communing kits;The protector should not interfere with the normal operation or affect the performance of the service being protected;Where internal circuits are of significant length or the equipment being interconnected is of prime importance or especially vulnerable, then surge protection should be provided at both ends of each interconnecting circuit;Protective devices for PSTN and Private wire use should be rated at 10kA (8/20s).7.7.6 Co axial and Screened CircuitsCertain types of coaxial and screened circuits, e.g. Local Area Networks and some types of sensors, should only be earthed at one point. The use of an appropriate transient overvoltage protector will provide the additional bonding required by these guidelines whilst maintaining isolation of the screening.7.8 Earthing7.8.1 GeneralEarthing of a system involves the provision of a connection to the general mass of earth. This connection should have a resistance not greater than 10 ohms. In typical Aids to Navigation installations, it is often difficult to achieve this ideal. In such conditions the general philosophy of protection must be to provide an equipotential site so that damage due to voltage differences within the site are minimised.Earth electrodes can be installed in a variety or combination of forms including deep driven spikes, plates, horizontal strips or conductors and sea terminations. The type(s) of electrode used depend on local conditions. Figure 18 Different types of earth electrodesThe resistance to earth of a given electrode depends upon the electrical resistivity of the soil in which it is installed.The soil resistivity can be calculated by the Wenner Method (see Annexes C and D).Measurement of soil resistivity and consequent length of earth electrode can be determined in the following manner.Four equally spaced electrodes are driven into the soil to a depth not exceeding 5% of the spacing between any two electrodes. A current source is connected to the outer two electrodes and the voltage between the middle two electrodes is measured, see Figure 7. From the values of the voltage and current, a value for ‘R’ can be calculated (most resistively measuring equipment gives a direct reading).The soil resistivity can be calculated from the formula:=200 d R ohms centimetres(equation 1) Soil resistivitywhere:d is the distance between electrodesR is the resistance (in ohms) measured between the middle electrodesThis measurement gives the soil resistively at a depth equal to the distance between the electrodes.If the distance between the electrodes is varied, the measurement repeated and the results recorded, soil resistance at various depths will be obtained. The length of earth electrode required, depending on the section used, can be determined using the following formula or with free software ERICO GEM Calculator v3.1 (www. erico.com):Rectangular Section Horizontal Strips.Circular Section Horizontal StripsRectangular Sectional Vertical StripsCircular Sectional Vertical StripsWhere:R = apparent earth electrode resistance in ohms = soil resistivity in ohm centimetresD = depth of electrode in metres = diameter of electrode in centimetresL = length of electrode in metresw = width of electrode in centimetres7.8.2 On SoilEach down conductor should have an associated earth network. This may comprise a single earth electrode or a number of electrodes connected together to form a single network.The best connection was the aluminothermic (exothermic) welding that will never loosen, corrode or increase in resistance (See Figure 19).The total earth resistance of each earth network should not exceed 10 ohms multiplied by the total number of down conductors. Figure 19 Aluminothermic Welding7.8.3 On RockWhere a structure is built on rock, it may not be possible to achieve the 10 ohm maximum value for earth resistance.Where this is the case, no maximum value is stated and the following procedure should be adopted.Each earth electrode should be formed by inserting a 2.4m earth rod into a 75mm diameter hole core drilled to a minimum depth of 2.4m and the hole back filled with cement mixed with a conductive carbonaceous aggregate, for example, Marconite. Bentonite may be used as a substitute for the cement mix but care will be needed to ensure that the Bentonite is not washed out of the hole or that it becomes dry.It is important to note that in cases where a low resistance earth cannot be achieved, the local ground potential rise during a lightning event can be very extreme indeed. If suitable bonding arrangements have been put in place at the site, this alone may not cause significant damage to the installation, but extreme damage may occur to interfaces and wired connections between the site and remote earths (such as PSTN, electric power and remote monitoring connections). As a consequence, careful attention needs to be put towards protecting such interfaces at sites where low resistance earths cannot be achieved.7.8.4 On Thin SoilWhere the station is built on rock with a thin covering of soil, the earth may be formed by burying strip electrodes in trenches. The trench should be at least 1 metre deep and the system should be installed below the frost line and below the area which may be subject to seasonal changes.7.8.5 Sea Earth ElectrodesOn structures built on rock, a sea earth electrode can be used as an alternate or in addition to the earth rod system. The earth electrode comprises a mesh of 20 mm x 3 mm copper tape of at least 1 m x 1 m, attached to the rock below the low tide water line. Secure fixing is difficult as the electrode is in the wave area and consequently subject to severe conditions. 8 PERIODIC INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE8.1 InspectionAll lightning protection systems should be visually inspected by a competent person during installation, after completion and after alteration or extension, in order to verify that they are in accordance with the recommendations in these guidelines and with BS6651:1992 or the appropriate national or international standard. Visual inspections of the installation and of the lightning surge arrestors should be repeated at fixed intervals not exceeding 12 months.In addition, the mechanical condition of all conductors, bonds, joints, terminations and earth electrodes (including reference electrodes) should be checked and the observations noted. If, for any reason, such as site works, it is temporarily not possible to inspect certain parts of the installation, this should also be noted.During periodic inspection of the lightning protection system, the bonding of any recently added services should be checked to ensure that they are in accordance with these guidelines.8.2 TestingOnly disconnect one earth electrode at a time for testing. If only one earth electrode exists then the installation MUST be disconnected from all sources of mains power (including generators) before the earth electrode is disconnected for testing. It is not sufficient to remove the mains earth bond for this test as other connections between the lightning protection system and mains earth will probably exist.8.2.1 GeneralOn completion of the installation or any modification to it, the following measurements and/or checks should be made and the results recorded in a lightning protection system logbook:1st. The resistance to earth of the earth termination network and of each earth electrode;The results of a visual check on all conductors, bonds and joints or their measured electrical continuity.Tests should be repeated at fixed intervals, preferably not exceeding 12 months.8.2.2 Testing Earth Electrode ResistanceThe resistance of each earth electrode should be measured with that electrode disconnected from the rest of the lightning protection system and the results recorded. The preferred method of measurement is illustrated in Figure 20. A known current is passed between the earth electrode (E) under test and the test electrode (TE1) and the voltage between E and a second test electrode (TE2) is measured. From these values the earth electrode resistance can be calculated. Measuring instruments are available that combine the above functions and indicate earth electrode resistance directly.8.2.3 Maintenance of raduim 226 & americium 241 lightning rodsFor more information about radium-226 and americium-241 and its effect on human been life consult Annex A.Figure 20 Preferred method of measurement the earth electrode resistanceThe current test electrode (TE1) should be inserted into the ground some 30 to 50 metres from the lightning earth electrode under test. Initially, the voltage electrode (TE2) should be inserted about midway between E and TE1. The earth electrode resistance should be measured and recorded. Two further readings should be taken and recorded with TE2 placed 7 metres closer to and then 7metres further from E. If the three readings match within 5% then the position of TE1, the initial position of TE2 and the initial value obtained should be recorded for comparison with future tests. If the three results do not agree then the distance between E and TE1 should be increased and the three tests repeated. This process should be repeated until the three readings agree within the required accuracy.If the resistance to earth of the lightning protection system exceeds 10 ohms except on rock (see 8.2.3 below), or if the resistance of an individual electrode exceeds 10 ohms multiplied by the total number of electrodes, the value should be reduced. If the resistance is less than 10 ohms but significantly higher than the previous reading, the cause should be investigated and any necessary remedial action taken.8.2.4 Testing Earth Electrodes on RockWhere possible, two permanent test electrodes should be provided, located in accordance with Figure 20. Earth electrode resistance measurements should be made and recorded using these test electrodes.Where this is not possible (e.g. on a rock station) then each earth electrode should be disconnected in turn and the resistance between the isolated electrode and the rest of the system measured and recorded (see Note 1).Note 1 It is emphasized that before disconnecting a lightning protection earth, it should be tested to ensure that it is not ‘live’, using a sensitive voltage testing device.Note 2. It may be advantageous to choose a period slightly less than 12 months in order to vary the season in which the tests are made.Note 3. The presence of buried conductors e.g. underground mains and telephone cables, gas and water pipes, radio beacon earth mats etc. can considerably influence the results of earth electrode resistance measurements. Every effort should be made to locate these services and, wherever possible, select a measurement site away from these services. 8.3 Maintenance of Surge ArrestorsAs a result of the many ways that protection devices can fail without causing a long term interruptions, many manufacturers build metal oxide varistor (MOV) protectors with failure indicators on the front which indicate which MOV has failed and which are still operational. Maintenance will be restricted to periodic visual inspection and checking of the earth connections to ensure that they have not deteriorated and that all other connections are secure.‘In circuit’ resistance measurements could be carried out on other surge protectors to establish the integrity of surge arrestors but frequent checking is not advisable as faults in many instances are self-revealing. There is a real chance that routine disconnection and reconnection can lead to errors with crossed wires because of the large number of surge arrestors that may be present in an installation.8.4 RecordsThe following records should be kept on site or by the person responsible for the upkeep of the installation:1st. Scale drawings showing the nature, dimensions, materials and positions of all component parts of the lightning protection system;The nature of the soil and any special earthing arrangements;The type and position of the earth electrodes, including reference electrodes;The test conditions and the results obtained (see testing);Any alterations, additions or repairs to the system;The name of the person responsible for the installation or its upkeep.A label should be attached at the origin of the electrical installation, worded as follows:‘This installation is provided with a lightning protection system. The bonding to other services and the main equal potential bonding should be maintained accordingly.’8.5 MaintenanceThe periodic inspections and tests recommended above will show what maintenance, if any is needed. Particular attention should be given to the following:• earthing;• evidence of corrosion or conditions likely to lead to corrosion;• alterations and additions to the structure which may affect the lightning protection system (e.g. changes in the use of the building, the erection of radio antennas etc.).9 REFERENCE DOCUMENTSTwo publications of the British Standards Institution are particularly important in this context and reference will be made to them throughout the remainder of these guidelines. They are:[1] British Standard 6651 : 1992, "The protection of structures against lightning";[2] British Standard Code of Practice BS7430 : 1991, "Earthing".Other documents considered:[3] General Lighthouse Authorities; Development Department Report, "Guidelines for the Protection of Lighthouses and Aids to Navigation against Damage from Lightning", No. 20/RPD/1995, Trinity House Lighthouse Service, 1995[4] "Lightning Protection", Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA): AS-1768-1991[5] "Lightning Protection", Norwegian Coastal Administration, 1997[6] "Lightning Protection for Radio Transmitter Stations", Nautel Ltd., 1985[7] "Lightning Protection Systems", USCG, 1995Other relevant documents:[8] IEC 61024 “Protection of Structures against Lightning”[9] IEC 61312 “Protection against Lightning Electromagnetic Impulses – IT Systems”[10] NP 4426, December 2003, Portuguese standard “Protection of structures against lightning with Lightning rod with no radioactive ignition advancing”[11] NFC 17-102, 1995 French standard “Protection of structures against lightning with Lightning rod with no radioactive ignition advancing”[12] UNE 21186, 1986 Spanish standard “Protection of structures against lightning with Lightning rod with no radioactive ignition advancing”[13] NBR 7117, December 1981, Brazilian standard, measurement of soil resistivity with four points method (wenner method)”[14] IEC 61643-1, March 2005, dst[15] IEC 62305-1, January 2006, Protection against lightning – Part 1: General principles[16] IEC 62305-2, January 2006, Protection against lightning – Part 2: Risk management[17] IEC 62305-3, January 2006, Protection against lightning – Part 3: Physical damage to structures and life hazard[18] IEC 62305-4, January 2006, Protection against lightning – Part 4: Electrical and electronic system within structures[19] Necessity of the surge protector in the modern electronic world, IALA Buletin 2010/4. ANNEX A INFORMATION ABOUT RADIUM-226, AMERICIUM-241 AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE HUMAN BEINGSThe radium-226 has a half-life period of 1.600 years, while the americium-241 has a half-life period of 432.6 years.A half-life is the amount of time it takes for the radioactivity to drop by half. This means that for every half-life that passes, the activity is reduced to half the previous one, until it reaches a negligible value which doesn’t allow us to distinguish its radiation from environment radiation.In most cases it is considered that after 10 half-lives that level is reached.With the awareness of the radioactivity danger, and the possibility of no efficacy of these devices due to the aging and material deterioration it has been recommended not to use and to remove the radioactive lightning rods since 1991.In Portugal there is a Nuclear and Technological Institute (Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN)) that has the function of storing and treating radioactive waste and providing the instructions for safe handling. Currently, there are several alternatives on the market for protection against lightning strikes. There are lightning rods with non-radioactive ionizing devices that can provide protection levels as high as 99, 9% without environmental problems or risks to humans.Exposure risks associated to the americium radioactive lightning rods are relatively moderate. However the radioactive contamination of the environment risks could be high.The human organs that are most susceptible of being affected by the radioactivity are the bones, kidneys and lungs.In the case of radium lightning rods, the exposure and contamination risks are higher for distances lesser than one meter.Given that the lightning rods are located on the top of the structures, the risk of exposure to the radiation is normally small, since the dose of radiation received by an individual varies inversely with the square of the distance to the source. However, the same isn’t verified in situations where the work is done near the source of the radiation and people get long periods of exposure.The radiation biologic effects mainly depend on the radiation type, the radionuclide half-life, the amount incorporated and the organs where it is accumulated. In the human body, these effects are manifested on a somatic and on a genetic level. On a somatic level, only in the exposed being may show the effects of the radiation.Whereas the effects of the radiation on a genetic level are impossible to avoid since these are manifested only in the offspring of the exposed person.The radioactive lightning rods which were used in the eighties no longer meet the current standards to protect our equipment and are a potential hazard that needs to be eliminated.After being removed, they are considered radioactive waste and as so they should be treated.The Portuguese Nuclear and Technologic Institute (ITN) advices to follow the followings rules when handling radioactive lightning rods • Do not damage;• Use gloves;• Avoid contact with the tip of the lightning rod or the porcelain parts where the radioactive sources are;• Cut the pole slightly below the arms or the metal ring;• Wrap up the tip of the lightning rod with lead foil;• Pack in a wooden box;• Contact the local entity to pick it up. ANNEX B RISK ANALYSIS (example) ANNEX C WENNER METHODMeasurement of soil resistivity and consequent length of earth electrode can be determined in the following manner.Four equally spaced electrodes are driven into the soil to a depth not exceeding 5% of the spacing between any two electrodes. A current source is connected to the outer two electrodes and the voltage between the middle two electrodes is measured, see Figure 21. From the values of the voltage and current, a value for ‘R’ can be calculated (most resistively measuring equipment gives a direct reading).Figure 21 Wenner methodThe soil resistivity can be calculated with the formula:=200 d R ohms centimetres Soil resistivity equationwhere:d is the distance between electrodesR is the resistance (in ohms) measured between the electrodesThis measurement gives the soil resistivity at a depth equal to the distance between the electrodes.If the distance between the electrodes is varied, the measurement repeated and the results recorded, soil resistance at various depths will be obtained. OrIn practice, the soil is usually not homogeneous and its resistivity varies differently with depth. One of the methods used to know the ground resistivity where you want to install a ground network is the Wenner method. This method, also known by the method of four cuttings, consisting of four electrodes placed in line as shown in Figure 22, at a distance (a) should be at least 3 times the length of the electrode. Figure 22 Connection scheme for ground resistivity measuringThe test current is injected between electrodes C1 and C2 which will go inside the ground. The current circulating on the ground will lead to a potential difference between electrodes P1 and P2. This potential difference divided by the injected current will give us a resistance value that may designate from Rt.The ground resistivity is then determined by the simplified formula : Let (Rt) measured by the resistance device and (a) the distance between electrodes.Some apparatus just give the value of the ground resistivity instead of Rt.This resistivity is so determined on the ground resistivity to a depth of about 75% of the distance (a). Just then perform readings for different distances of spacing (a) and obtain the profile of the ground to different depths. ANNEX D CALCULATION SHEET TO DETERMINE THE RESISTIVITY OF THE SOIL (example).
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Much awaited 'National Building Code of India (NBC) – 2016', has been published by 'Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)' in March-2017. Now NBC 2016 will be followed in India by the inspectors and statutory authorities for approval of upcoming infrastructures.As the introduction of new NBC will bring out requirement to study and implement detailed aspects of civil and electrical engineering, we as knowledge partners and experts in Lightning and Surge protection will like to highlight points in new NBC related to Lightning Protection :- Only IS/IEC 62305 based Lightning protection system is approved[ Chapter – 11 of NBC - Volume – 2, Group 04]- which involves multiple rods and down conductors based upon detailed calculation .ESE (Early Streamer Emission) / CSE / Dissipation Technology lightning arresters are no longer allowedType 1 & 2 SPD (Surge Protection Devices) are to be installed at Main’s Entry Panel and Sub-distribution Panel.Special insulated cable can also be used as ‘down conductor’ to avoid un-controlled flash over in potentially hazardous areas.Isolating Spark Gap needs to be used for equipotential bonding between earthing systems.Details about Earthing Systems is also provided in the new code.Protection of solar system using IS/IEC 62305 by utilizing angled terminal.We , as DEHN, 106+ year of experience in Lightning Protection, Surge protection, earthing, would be pleased to assist you in our expertise field.Please contact us for more your queries related to Lightning protection as per IS / IEC 62305 and NBC 2016.
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